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Cryptography is a science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. Cryptography enables you to store sensitive information or transmit it across insecure network. So that it cannot read by anyone except the intended recipient. Cryptography provide the confidentiality, integrity, authentication, non repudiation Confidentiality is the process of maintaining the secrecy of information and data. Confidentiality can be achieved by encryption and decryption. The method of disguising plaintext result in such a way as to hide its substance is called encryption. Encryption plaintext result in unreadable gibberish called ciphertext. The process of reverting ciphertext to its original plaintext is called decryption. Encryption and decryption process used mathematical calculation with some shifting and rotating operation with or without a key. Cryptography can be divided into three types of algorithm Symmetric key algorithm, asymmetric key algorithm and hash function.

An algebraic method for public-key cryptography
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A protocol is a multi party algorithm, defined by a sequence of steps, speci- fying the actions required of two or more parties in order to achieve a specified objective. Furthermore, a key establishment protocol is a protocol whereby a shared secret becomes available to two or more parties, for

Cryptography decrypted
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Cryptography Decrypted the second node decrypts the data using a private cryptography key and transmits the decrypted data to the communication and control in a fueling environment miri visual cryptography is based on cryptography where n

An introduction to mathematical cryptography
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The creation of public key cryptography by Diffie and Hellman in 1976 and the subsequent invention of the RSA public key cryptosystem are watershed events in the long history of secret communications. It is hard to overestimate the VI Preface methods from information theory. Unconditionally secure schemes are now addressed in an extra chapter, Chapter 10. Unconditional security is not achievable without an unconditionally secure authentication of the communication partners. Suitable message

Reconciling two views of cryptography
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Abstract. Two distinct, rigorous views of cryptography have developed over the years, in two mostly separate communities. One of the views relies on a simple but effective formal approach; the other, on a detailed computational model that considers issues of complexity

On the impossibility of cryptography alone for privacy-preserving cloud computing.
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Abstract Cloud computing denotes an architectural shift toward thin clients and conveniently centralized provision of computing resources. Clients lack of direct resource control in the cloud prompts concern about the potential for data privacy violations, particularly abuse or

Practical cryptography
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Quantum cryptography : Public key distribution and coin tossing.
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When elementary quantum systems, such as polarized photons, are used to transmit digital information, the uncertainty principle gives rise to novel cryptographic phenomena unachievable with traditional transmission media, eg a communications channel on which it

On the relation of error correction and cryptography to an online biometric based identification scheme
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Abstract An line biometric identiFIcation protocol based on error correcting codes was recently developed as an enabling technology for secure biometric based user authentication. The protocol was designed to bind a users iris biometric template with

DES, AES and Blowfish: Symmetric key cryptography algorithms simulation based performance analysis
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Abstract-Security is the most challenging aspects in the internet and network applications. Internet and networks applications are growing very fast, so the importance and the value of the exchanged data over the internet or other media types are increasing. Hence the search

Entropy measures and unconditional security in cryptography
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Abstract One of the most important properties of a cryptographic system is a proof of its security. In the present work, information-theoretic methods are used for proving the security of unconditionally secure cryptosystems. The security of such systems does not

Cryptography : an introduction
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In this chapter we shall examine a number of more advanced cryptographic protocols which enable higher level services to be created. We shall particularly focus on protocols for commitment schemes, oblivious transfer. Whilst there is a large body of literature on these

Lecture notes on cryptography
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Much of the material in Chapters 2, 3 and 7 is a result of scribe notes, originally taken by MIT graduate students who attended Professor Goldwassers Cryptography and Cryptanalysis course over the years, and later edited by Frank DIppolito who was a teaching assistant for

Proxy Cryptography Revisited.
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Abstract In this work we revisit and formally study the notion of proxy cryptography . Intuitively, various proxy functions allow two cooperating parties F (the FBI ) and P (the proxy ) to duplicate the functionality available to the third party U (the user ), without being Abstract The goal of this paper is finding fair protocols for the secret sharing and secure multiparty computation (SMPC) problems, when players are assumed to be rational. It was observed by Halpern and Teague (STOC 2004) that protocols with bounded number of on two key cryptology started a search for two key cryptosystems. Several that have been discovered [3,5,6] depend on multiplication or exponentiation using modular arithmetic. However, to obtain reasonable cryptosecurity, the moduli must often

Foundations of Cryptography :(fragments of a Book
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Why fragments Several years ago, Sha Goldwasser and myself have decided to write together a book titled\Foundations of Cryptography . In a rst burst of energy, Ive written most of the material appearing in these fragments, but since then very little progress has been

Quantum cryptography
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Abstract. After a short introduction to classic cryptography we explain thoroughly how quantum cryptography works. We present then an elegant experimental realization based on a self-balanced interferometer with Faraday mirrors. This phase-coding setup needs no

Elliptic curves and cryptography
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Elliptic curves also figured prominently in the recent proof of Fermats Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles. Originally pursued for purely aesthetic reasons, elliptic curves have recently been utilized in devising algorithms for factoring integers, primality proving, and in publickey

Networked Rfid Systems Lightweight Cryptography
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The rapid growth of RFID use in various supply chain operations, which has arisen from the development of Electronic Product Code (EPC) technology, has created a need for the consideration of security issues in the adoption of that technology. As the originators of EPC

An overview of cryptography
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Does increased security provide comfort to paranoid people Or does security provide some very basic protections that we are naive to believe that we dont need During this time when the Internet provides essential communication between tens of millions of people and is

Multivariate Quadratic Polynomials in Public Key Cryptography .
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Asymmetric Cryptography is necessary for using the Internet in a secure manner, eg, e- Commerce applications, private communication, secure communication At present, mostly RSA (factoring), and Zp/ECC (discrete logarithm) are used for asymmetric cryptography Both In this survey, we describe some of the recent progress on lattice-based cryp- tography. What is a lattice It is a set of points in n-dimensional space with a periodic structure, such as the one illustrated in Figure 1. More formally, given n-linearly independent vectors v1,,vn ∈ Rn, the

Cryptography A selective survey
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Abstract. Cryptography has two goals (secrecy and/or authenticity) and the security that it affords can be of two kinds (theoretical or practical); this implies a natural four-fold division of cryptography that is adopted in this paper. Shannons theory of theoretical secrecy is

Cryptography in radio frequency identification and fair exchange protocols
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Fair exchange stems from a daily life problem: how can two people exchange objects (material or immaterial) fairly, that is, without anyone being hurt in the exchange More formally, if Alice and Bob each have objects mA and mB respectively, then the exchange is One of the first examples of fault injection in microprocessors was unintentional. May and Woods noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements present in the packaging materials used to protect microprocessors were energetic enough to cause faults [277].

Lightweight cryptography for the internet of things
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Abstract. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art technology and standardization status of lightweight cryptography which can be implemented efficiently in constrained devices. This technology enables secure and efficient communication between networked

CryptoLib: Cryptography in Software.
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ABSTRACT With the capacity of communications channels increasing at the current rates and with the kinds of electronic services becoming more varied and multidimensional, there is also coming a greater tendency to store and forward sensitive, semi-private or very private

An overview of public key cryptography
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cryptography from an unclassified point of view, the climate was far from conducive.

Why cryptography is harder than it looks
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Cryptography helps provide accountability, fairness, accuracy, and confidentiality. It can prevent fraud in electronic commerce and assure the validity of financial transactions. It can prove your identity or protect your anonymity. It can keep vandals from altering your Web

Data security in cloud computing with elliptic curve cryptography
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Abstract Cloud computing is one of todays hottest research areas due to its ability to reduce costs associated with computing while increasing scalability and flexibility for computing services. Cloud computing is Internet based computing due to shared resources,

Recommendation for pair-wise key establishment schemes using discrete logarithm cryptography
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Page 1. NIST Special Publication 800-56A Revision 2 Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography

Encoding and decoding of a message in the implementation of Elliptic Curve cryptography using Koblitzs method
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Abstract: Elliptic Curve Cryptography recently gained a lot of attention in industry. The principal attraction of ECC compared to RSA is that it offers equal security for a smaller bit size, thereby reducing processing overhead. ECC is ideal for constrained environment such

Quantum cryptography : Uncertainty in the service of privacy
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In general, observing a quantum system disturbs it, and prevents the observer from learning its exact state before the observation. Therefore, if quantum systems are used to carry information, an eavesdropper, or even the intended recipient, may be prevented from getting

Speeding up Secure Web Transactions Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography .
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Abstract Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional public-key cryptosystems (RSA, DSA, DH). ECC offers equivalent security with smaller key sizes resulting in faster computations, lower power consumption, as well as

Survey of visual cryptography schemes
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Abstract Visual cryptography scheme is a cryptographic technique which allows visual information (eg printed text, handwritten notes, and picture) to be encrypted in such a way that the decryption can be performed by the human visual system, without the aid of

Symmetric Key Cryptography Using Random Key Generator.
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Abstract-In the present work we have introduced a new symmetric key cryptographic method for encrypting as well as decrypting any file such as binary file, text file or any other file. In our method we have modified the idea of Play fair method into a new platform where we can

When Good Randomness Goes Bad: Virtual Machine Reset Vulnerabilities and Hedging Deployed Cryptography .
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Abstract Random number generators (RNGs) are consistently a weak link in the secure use of cryptography . Routine cryptographic operations such as encryption and signing can fail spectacularly given predictable or repeated randomness, even when using good long-lived

Segment-based visual cryptography
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Abstract A version of Visual Cryptography is presented which is not pixel-based but segment- based. It is used to encrypt messages consisting of symbols which can be represented by a segment display. For example, the decimal digits 0,, 9 can be represented by the well-

Report on post-quantum cryptography
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Abstract In recent years, there has been a substantial amount of research on quantum computers machines that exploit quantum mechanical phenomena to solve mathematical problems that are difficult or intractable for conventional computers. If large-scale quantum

Introduction to modern cryptography
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This is a set of class notes that we have been developing jointly for some years. We use them for cryptography courses that we teach at our respective institutions. Each time one of us teaches the class, he takes the token and updates the notes a bit. The process has

An overview of public key cryptography
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Cryptography has been of great importance to the military and diplomatic communities since antiquity but failed, until recently,. to attract much commercial attention. Recent commercial interest, by contrast, has been almost explosive due to the rapid computerization of

Security pitfalls in cryptography
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But reality isnt that simple. Longer keys dont always mean more security. Compare the cryptographic algorithm to the lock on your front door. Most door locks have four metal pins, each of which can be in one of ten positions. A key sets the pins in a particular configuration.

Evaluating the Effects of Symmetric Cryptography Algorithms on Power Consumption for Different Data Types.
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Abstract As the importance and the value of exchanged data over the Internet or other media types are increasing, the search for the best solution to offer the necessary protection against the data thieves attacks. Encryption algorithms play a main role in information

Cryptography for ultra-low power devices
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Abstract Ubiquitous computing describes the notion that computing devices will be everywhere: clothing, walls and floors of buildings, cars, forests, deserts, etc. Ubiquitous computing is becoming a reality: RFIDs are currently being introduced into the supply chain.

Applications of T-functions in Cryptography
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Contents 8 0 Introduction Informal exposition 2.1 Invertibility . . 2.2 The single cycle property 23 Latin squares 24 MDS mappings .

Comparison of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography with existing vulnerabilities and countermeasures
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Abstract Internet and networks application are growing very fast, so the need to protect such application are increased by using cryptographic methods. The two widely accepted and used cryptographic methods are symmetric and asymmetric. The DES ideally belongs to the

Everyday cryptography
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To a mathematician, cryptography means public-key encryption using a one-way trapdoor function. We often teach it as an elegant application of results in number theory, such as the Euler Fermat Theorem, the basis of the RSA cryptosystem, or the discrete logarithm

Efficient Cancelable Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography .
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Abstract This paper puts forth a fresh methodology for the secure storage of fingerprint template by generating Secured Feature Matrix and keys for cryptographic techniques applied for data Encryption or Decryption with the aid of cancellable biometric features. The 8th Annual Financial Cryptography Conference was held during 9 12 February 2004 in Key West, Florida, USA. The conference was organized by the International Financial Cryptography Association (IFCA). The program committee, which comprised 25 members,

Cryptography engineering
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Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of

Cryptography in embedded systems: An overview
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Abstract. It is widely recognized that data security will play a central role in the design of future IT systems. Many of those IT applications will be realized as embedded systems which rely heavily on security mechanisms. Examples include security for wireless phones,

An application of visual cryptography to financial documents
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Abstract: VCRYPT, an application of visual cryptography is described as a means of transmitting financial documents where moderate security is required. Visual cryptography in general uses a simple algorithm unlike the complex, computationally intensive algorithms

Cryptography based digital image watermarking algorithm to increase security of watermark data
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Abstract Digital watermarking is one of the proposed solutions for copyright protection of multimedia data. This technique is better than Digital Signatures and other methods because it does not increase overhead. Digital Watermarking describes methods and

Visual cryptography for color images without pixel expansion
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ABSTRACT Visual cryptography an emerging cryptography technology, exploits the characteristics of the human visual system to decrypt overlapping images without mass and complicated computations.

Cryptography and game theory
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Abstract The Cryptographic and Game Theory worlds seem to have an intersection in that they both deal with an interaction between mutually distrustful parties which has some end result. In the cryptographic setting the multiparty interaction takes the shape of a set of

Cryptography from pairings
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This chapter presents a survey of positive applications of pairings in cryptography . We assume the reader has a basic understanding of concepts from cryptography such as public key encryption, digital signatures, and key exchange protocols. A solid grounding in the

Introduction to modern cryptography
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This is a set of class notes that we have been developing jointly for some years. We use them for the graduate cryptography courses that we teach at our respective institutions. Each time one of us teaches the class, he takes the token and updates the notes a bit. You might
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