electronic road pricing

Congestion management and electronic road pricing in Singapore
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Government and policy makers today face the pressing problem of managing road congestion in urban areas. This paper details the experience of Singapore and the effort made to curb vehicular increase on the roads using a state-of-the-art regulated Electronic 

Electronic road pricing: developments in Hong Kong 1983-1989
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The theory of road pricing is well known to economists. It dates back to the famous two-road example in Professor Arthur Pigou's Economics of Welfare (1920). If a tax could be imposed on only one of the roads, he argued that both speed and travel time would be better on the 

An advanced demand management instrument in urban transport: electronic road pricing in Singapore
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Road pricing is a demand management instrument that has been effectively used in Singapore to help alleviate traffic congestion beginning with the Area Licensing Scheme (ALS) in 1975 and, subsequently, the Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system in 1998. The 

Electronic road pricing in Hong Kong: the pilot stage
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ABSTRACT A high level of car ownership in Hong Kong has resulted in severe traffic congestion problems despite a continuing programme of capital-intensive road and mass transit construction. As government action to restrain vehicle ownership has proved 

Electronic road pricing in Singapore
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ABSTRACT This paper presents an overview of the key events in the development of congestion pricing from June 1975, the time at which Singapore implemented the world's first congestion pricing program. Other pricing measures for managing road travel demand 

Road pricing for congestion management: the transition from theory to policy
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 For Hong Kong, the new concept was an operational one: electronic road pricing (ERP), a flexible and comprehensive system involving multiple cordons and fully automated charging through the electronic identification of devices attached to vehicles. 

Road pricing: Singapore's experience
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 The ALS was in place for 23 years before being replaced by an electronic version called the Electronic Road Pricing System (ERP), while the RPS was implemented progressively on expressways from 1995 (and also subsequently replaced by the ERP in 1998).