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formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really exist in a particular domain

ontology is a formal representation of the knowledge by a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the properties of that domain and may be used to describe the domain. In theory, ontology is a ”formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization”. Ontology provides a shared vocabulary, which can be used to model a domain that is, the type of objects, and/or concepts that exist, and their properties and relations. Ontologies are used in Artificial Intelligence, the Semantic Web, Systems Engineering, Software Engineering, Biomedical Informatics, Library Science, Enterprise Bookmarking, and Information Architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework. There are four categories of ontology: static, dynamic, intentional and social. Static ontology describes things that exist, their attributes and relationship. Dynamic ontology describes the world in terms of states, state transitions and processes. Intentional ontology encompass the world of agents, things believe in, want, prove or disprove and argue about. Social ontology covers social settings, permanent organizational structures or shifting networks of alliances and independencies

FCA-Merge: Bottom-up merging of ontologies
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Abstract Ontologies have been established for knowledge sharing and are widely used as a means for conceptually structuring domains of interest. With the growing usage of ontologies the problem of overlapping knowledge in a common domain becomes critical.

Toward distributed use of large-scale ontologies
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Abstract Large scale knowledge bases systems are difficult and expensive to construct. If we could share knowledge across systems, costs would be reduced. However, because knowledge bases are typically constructed from scratch, each with their own idiosyncratic In modern computer science parlance, one does not talk anymore aboutontologyas the science of existence, but ofontologies as formal specifications of a conceptualization in the sense of Gruber [Gruber, 1993]. So, whereas ontologywas originally a science,ontologies

A practical guide to building OWL ontologies using the Prot g -OWL plugin and CO-ODE tools edition 1.0
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This guide introduces the Prot g -OWL plugin for creating OWL ontologies . Chapter 3 gives a brief overview of the OWL ontology language. Chapter 4 focuses on building an OWL-DL ontology and using a Description Logic Reasoner to check the consistency of the ontology

An environment for merging and testing large ontologies
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Abstract Large-scale ontologies are becoming an essential component of many applications including standard search (such as Yahoo and Lycos), ecommerce (such as Amazon and eBay), configuration (such as Dell and PC-Order), and government intelligence (such as

Ontolingua: A mechanism to support portable ontologies
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Abstract An ontology is a set of de nitions of content-speci c knowledge representation primitives: classes, relations, functions, and object constants. Ontolingua is mechanism for writing ontologies in a canonical format, such that they can be easily translated into a variety

Combining and relating ontologies : an analysis of problems and solutions
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Abstract With the grown availability of large and specialized online ontologies the questions about the combined use of independently developed ontologies have become even more important. Although there is already a lot of research done in this area, there are still many

Linking Lixicons and Ontologies : Mapping WordNet to the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology.
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Abstract Abstract: Ontologies are becoming extremely useful tools for sophisticated software engineering. Designing applications, databases, and knowledge bases with reference to a common ontology can mean shorter development cycles, easier and faster integration with

DL-Lite: Tractable description logics for ontologies
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Abstract We propose a new Description Logic, called DL-Lite, specifically tailored to capture basic ontology languages, while keeping low complexity of reasoning. Reasoning here means not only computing subsumption between concepts, and checking satisfiability of the

Folksontology: An integrated approach for turning folksonomies into ontologies
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Abstract. We can observe that the amount of non-toy domain ontologies is still very limited for many areas of interest. In contrast, folksonomies are widely in use for (1) tagging Web pages (eg del. icio. us),(2) annotating pictures (eg flickr), or (3) classifying scholarly

The OWL API: a Java API for working with OWL 2 ontologies
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Abstract. This paper presents the OWL API a high level Application Programming Interface (API) for working with OWL 2 ontologies . The API is closely aligned with the OWL 2 structural specification. It supports parsing and rendering in the syntaxes defined in the W3C

Mapping ontologies into Cyc
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Abstract The advent of Web services, and the Semantic Web described by domain ontologies highlight the bottleneck to their growth: ontology mapping, merging, and integration. In this paper we present the process by which over the last 15 years several

Semantic heterogeneity in global information systems: The role of metadata, context and ontologies
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Abstract Semantic heterogeneity has been identi ed as one of the most important and toughest problems when dealing with interoperability and cooperation among multiple databases. It was earlier studied in the context of exchanging, sharing and integrating data,

Reasoning with Inconsistent Ontologies .
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Abstract In this paper we present a framework of reasoning with inconsistent ontologies in which pre-defined selection functions are used to deal with concept relevance. We examine how the notion of concept relevance can be used for reasoning with inconsistent

Combining and standardizing large-scale, practical ontologies for machine translation and other uses
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Abstract The increasing proliferation of large-scale knowledge bases, used in Computational Linguistics, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, Databases, and related fields, creates the need for an integrated knowledge framework in which their contents can

Ontologies Web 2.0 and Beyond
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Page 1. Ontologies Web 2.0 and Beyond Tom Gruber TagCommons.org tomgruber.org Page 2. outline situate ontologies in Web 2.0 and Semantic Web characterizing the space of ontologies Confluence of social and semantic web ontologies Page 3. Doug Engelbart, 1968

QUONTO: querying ontologies
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One of the most important lines of research in Description Logics (DLs) is concerned with the trade-off between expressive power and computational complexity of sound and complete reasoning. Research carried out in the past on this topic has shown that many DLs with

Falcon-ao: Aligning ontologies with falcon
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ABSTRACT Falcon-AO is an automatic tool for aligning ontologies . There are two matchers integrated in Falcon-AO: one is a matcher based on linguistic matching for ontologies called LMO; the other is a matcher based on graph matching for ontologies called GMO. In Falcon-

Editing description logic ontologies with the Prot g OWL plugin
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Abstract The growing interest in the Semantic Web and the Web Ontology Language (OWL) will reveal the potential of Description Logics in industrial projects. The rich semantics of OWL provide powerful reasoning capabilities that help build, maintain and query domain

Interoperation, mediation and ontologies
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Abstract In this paper we address the problem of interoperation at a semantic level. We assume that emerging standards will solve most of the syntactic infrastructure problems that exist today. However, interoperation has to deal with sources from di ering domains, and

Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning
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The Semantic Web is the emerging landscape of new web technologies aiming at web- based information and services that would be understandable and reusable by both humans and machines. Ontologies generally defined as a representation of a shared

On ontology, ontologies conceptualizations, modeling languages, and (meta) models
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Abstract. In philosophy, the term ontology has been used since the 17th century to refer both to a philosophical discipline (Ontology with a capital O ), and as a domain-independent system of categories that can be used in the conceptualization of domain-specific scientific

Mapping XML to OWL Ontologies .
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Abstract: By now, XML has reached a wide acceptance as data exchange format in E- Business. An efficient collaboration between different participants in E-Business thus, is only possible, when business partners agree on a common syntax and have a common Ontologies play a central role in the development of the semantic web, as they provide precise definitions of shared terms in web resources. One important web ontology language is DAML+ OIL; it has a formal semantics and a reasoning support through a

A logical framework for modularity of ontologies .
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Abstract Modularity is a key requirement for collaborative ontology engineering and for distributed ontology reuse on the Web. Modern ontology languages, such as OWL, are logic- based, and thus a useful notion of modularity needs to take the semantics of ontologies and

Querix: A natural language interface to query ontologies based on clarification dialogs
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Abstract The logic-based machine-understandable framework of the Semantic Web typically challenges casual users when they try to query ontologies . An often proposed solution to help casual users is the use of natural language interfaces. Such tools, however, suffer from

Domain ontologies in software engineering: use of Protege with the EON architecture
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Domain ontologies are formal descriptions of the classes of concepts and the relationships among those concepts that describe an application area. The Prot g software-engineering methodology provides a clear division between domain ontologies and domain-

Gmo: A graph matching for ontologies
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ABSTRACT Ontology matching is an important task to achieve interoperation between semantic web applications using different ontologies . Structural similarity plays a central role in ontology matching. However, the existing approaches rely heavily on lexical similarity,

Ontologies for molecular biology.
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Molecular biology has a communication problem. There are many databases using their own labels and categories for storing data objects and some using identical labels and categories but with a di erent meaning. A prominent example is the concept\gene which is

Domain specific ontologies for semantic information brokering on the global information infrastructure
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Abstract Recent emerging technologies such as internetworking and the World Wide Web (WWW) have signi cantly expanded the types, availability, and volume of data accessible to an information management system. In this new environment it is imperative to view an

Resolving terminological heterogeneity in ontologies
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Abstract. A system that enables interoperation among information sources using ontologies needs to resolve the terminological differences between ontologies . In this work, we present several methods that we have designed to match terms used in different ontologies . We

Grounding Software Domain Ontologies in the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO): The case of the ODE Software Process Ontology.
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Abstract. Foundational Ontologies are theoretically well-founded domainindependent systems of categories that have been successfully used to improve the quality of conceptual modeling languages and models. In this paper, we present the latest developments in the

Modularity and Web Ontologies .
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Abstract Modularity in ontologies is key both for large scale ontology development and for distributed ontology reuse on the Web. However, the problems of formally characterizing a modular representation, on the one hand, and of automatically identifying modules within an

The role of ontologies in data integration
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Abstract In this paper, we discuss the use of ontologies for data integration. We consider two different settings depending on the system architecture: central and peer-to-peer data integration. Within those settings, we discuss five different cases studies that illustrate the

Design and creation of ontologies for environmental information retrieval
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We are witnessing today an exponential growth of data accumulated within universities, corporations and government organizations. Autonomous data repositories storing different types of data are becoming available for use. This makes it impossible for users to be aware

Evaluation of taxonomic knowledge in ontologies and knowledge bases
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Consistency refers to whether it is possible to obtain contradictory conclusions from valid input definitions. A given definition is consistent if and only if the individual definition is consistent and no contradictory sentences can be inferred using other definitions and axioms. q A given definition

Using ontologies to strengthen folksonomies and enrich information retrieval in weblogs
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Abstract While free-tagging classification is widely used in social software implementations and especially in weblogs, it raises various issues regarding information retrieval. In this paper, we describe an approach that mixes folksonomies and semantic web technologies in

Ontologies for integrating engineering applications
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One of the major problems facing enterprises today is the lack of interoperability among the various software applications that the enterprise uses. This problem is most acute for systems that must manage the heterogeneity inherent in various domains and integrate

Rules for mapping SQL relational databases to OWL ontologies
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This paper proposes an approach to automatic transformation of relational databases to ontologies where constraints CHECK are also considered. A relational database is written in SQL and an ontology is written in OWL. The proposed approach can be used for

Ontologies as conceptual models for XML documents
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Abstract: Access to XML-based documents currently relies on query languages that are closely tied to the document structures, ie when looking for information one has to be aware of this structure and cannot easily specify the information needs conceptually. Our approach

A Comparison of Upper Ontologies .
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Abstract Upper Ontologies are quickly becoming a key technology for integrating heterogeneous knowledge coming from different sources. In fact, they may be exploited as a lingua franca by intelligent software agents in all those scenarios where it is impossible (or

Learning of ontologies for the web: the analysis of existent approaches
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Abstract The next generation of the Web, called Semantic Web, has to improve the Web with semantic (ontological) page annotations to enable knowledge-level querying and searches. Manual construction of these ontologies will require tremendous efforts that force future

Integrity and change in modular ontologies
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Abstract The benefits of modular representations are well known from many areas of computer science. In this paper, we concentrate on the benefits of modular ontologies with respect to local containment of terminological reasoning. We define an architecture for

An algorithm for merging and aligning ontologies : Automation and tool support
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Abstract As researchers in the ontology-design field develop the content of a growing number of ontologies the need for sharing and reusing this body of knowledge becomes increasingly critical. Aligning and merging existing ontologies which is usually handled

OSS: A Semantic Similarity Function based on Hierarchical Ontologies .
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Abstract Various approaches have been proposed to quantify the similarity between concepts in an ontology. We present a novel approach that allows similarities to be asymmetric while still using only information contained in the structure of the ontology. We

Lightweight ontologies
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A language model assigns a probability to a piece of unseen text, based on some training data. For example, a language model based on a big English newspaper archive is expected to assign a higher probability to a bit of textthan to aw pit tov tags,because the

Ontologies for Enterprise Integration.
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Abstract We present a logical framework for representing the agents in a cooperating information system. We define an architecture for Integrated Supply Chain Management in which the supply chain is managed by a set of intelligent agents responsible for one or more

Learning ontologies for the semantic web
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ABSTRACT The Semantic Web relies heavily on the formal ontologies that structure underlying data for the purpose of comprehensive and transportable machine understanding. Therefore, the success of the Semantic Web depends strongly on the

Storing OWL ontologies in SQL relational databases
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Abstract Relational databases are often used as a basis for persistent storage of ontologies to facilitate rapid operations such as search and retrieval, and to utilize the benefits of relational databases management systems such as transaction management,

X-similarity: Computing semantic similarity between concepts from different ontologies .
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ABSTRACT: Semantic Similarity relates to computing the similarity between concepts (terms) which are not necessarily lexically similar. We investigate approaches for computing semantic similarity by mapping terms to an ontology and by examining their relationships in

Efficient management of very large ontologies
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Abstract This paper describes an environment for supporting very large ontologies . The system can be used on single PCs, workstations, a cluster of workstations, and high-end parallel supercomputers. The architecture of the system uses the secondary storage of a

SEAL Tying Up Information Integration and Web Site Management by Ontologies
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Abstract Community web sites exhibit two dominating properties: They often need to integrate many different information sources and they require an adequate web site management system. SEAL (SEmantic portAL) is a conceptual model that exploits

Ontosearch2: Searching and querying web ontologies
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ABSTRACT Ontologies are important components of web-based applications. While the Web makes an increasing number of ontologies widely available for applications, how to discover ontologies in the Web becomes a more challenging issue. Existing approaches are

The relation between ontologies and XML schemas
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Abstract. Support in the exchange of data, information, and knowledge is becoming a key issue in current computer technology. Ontologies may play a major role in supporting the information exchange processes, as they provide a shared and common understanding of a

Comparing ontologiessimilarity measures and a comparison study
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Abstract Ontologies serve as a means for communication at a semantic level. However, to be able to effectively communicate it is first necessary to determine agreement about the underlying ontological structures. For this purpose, we consider ontologies as semiotic sign

The relation between ontologies and schema-languages: Translating OIL-specifications in XML-schema.
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Abstract. Currently computers are changing from single isolated devices to entry points into a worldwide network of information exchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web (WWW). Therefore support in the exchange of data, information, and knowledge

Ontological web portal for educational ontologies
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Abstract. In spite of the fact that the field of applying ontological research in education is fairly young it is already quite broad and fuzzy. The set of technologies used and developed there have roots in a variety of diverse areas of information and pedagogical sciences. To

Experiences in using a method for building domain ontologies
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Abstract. Since 1997 we are working in building domain ontologies . During this period of time, we have developed several ontologies using a systematic approach for building ontologies first published in 1998, and now called SABiO. In this paper we discuss strong

Using ontologies in software engineering and technology
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In this chapter, the state of the art on the use of ontologies in software engineering and technology (SET) is presented. The chapter is organized into four parts. In the second and third sections, serving as a supplement to Chap. 1, 29 a wide review of the distinct kinds of

Incompletely and imprecisely speaking: using dynamic ontologies for representing and retrieving information.
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Abstract We report on an approach to representation and retrieval of information from large textual databases. Our approach is based on dynamic ontologies that are automatically constructed from textual data by a new method combining techniques from knowledge
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