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railway track IEEE PAPER



Models for railway track allocation
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Abstract. The optimal track allocation problem (OPTRA) is to find, in a given railway network, a conflict free set of train routes of maximum value. We study two types of integer programming formulations for this problem: a standard formulation that models block

A procedure for design and optimization of a railway track structure
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Abstract Traditionally, railway track design used to be conservative and thus only small changes have taken place in the last century. In the same time, many measurement, analysis and optimization techniques have been developed to understand and predict

Influences of track structure, geometry and traffic parameters on railway deterioration
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Abstract The roles of the several parameters that influences railway track deterioration most, are examined in this research with a view to make railway track maintenance more effective and cost efficient. The results presented are based on a comprehensive study of railway

Investigation on the accuracy of the current practices in analysis of railway track concrete sleepers
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Abstract: In this paper, the main factors in the analysis of the railway concrete sleepers are investigated and new recommendations are made in order to improve the accuracy of the current practices in analysis of the railway track system. First, a comprehensive literature

Effectively solving production gang scheduling problems for railway track maintenance projects
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Page 3. Annual RailwayTrack Maintenance Planning US Rail transportation 120,154 route miles $54.6 billion in annual revenue Successfully applied the proposed model and methods to annual railwaytrack maintenance planning in a major railway company.

The development of a rail damping device for reducing noise from railway track
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ABSTRACT The component of railway rolling noise radiated by the track dominates in the frequency range up to about 1.5 kHz and often can be more important than the wheel component for the overall noise level. A promising means to reduce the track noise is to

Benefit-Cost Analysis of Heavy Haul Railway Track Upgrade for Safety and Efficiency
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Summary: Upgrading track quality offers potential safety and service quality benefits because it can reduce both derailment rate and transportation time. However track upgrades are costly and increase capital and operating expense for upgrade and maintenance. A

Ground-penetrating radar evaluation of railway track substructure conditions
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ABSTRACT Ground penetrating radar has shown the ability to map rail road track substructure condition on a continuous top-of-rail non destructive basis. In this study, 1 GHz radar data were acquired between concrete and wood ties as well as from the ballast

Assessment of railway track substructure condition using ground penetrating radar
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ABSTRACT Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been employed to assess railway track substructure (ballast, subballast, and subgrade) conditions. GPR involves transmitting radar pulses into the substructure and measuring return signals that have reflected off

Railway track transmission line parameters from finite element field modelling: Series impedance
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Abstract: An electromagnetic field model for identification of rail track equivalent multi conductor transmission line distributed self and mutual series impedances is formulated, and used to illustrate the parametric behaviour of single track impedance with

Influence of railway track stiffness variations on wheel/rail contact force
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INFLUENCE OF RAILWAYTRACK STIFFNESS VARIATIONS ON WHEEL/RAIL

Dynamic behaviour of railway track
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In 1995, the Faculty of Civil Engineering of TU Delft completed a study on the behaviour of'Paved-in light rail track constructions . Apart from investigating the different construction types, in-track measurements of quasi-static deflections under passing vehicles were

Development of a machine-vision system for inspection of railway track components
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ABSTRACT North American Railways and the United States Department of Transportation (US DOT) Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) require periodic inspection of railway infrastructure to ensure the safety of railway operation. This inspection is a critical, but

DYNATRACK: A survey of dynamic railway track properties and their quality
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Railway track settlements-a literature review
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This report has been written as part of the BriteEuram project SUPERTRACK (Sustained performance of railway tracks) The project started in

Condition monitoring of railway track using in-service vehicle
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Condition monitoring of railway tracks, vehicles are essential in ensuring the safety of railways In the field of road traffic, research is proceeding to acquire detailed traffic flow information and reflect it in traffic control by

Dynamic simulation of tram-train vehicles on railway track
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train systems carry out the integration of an urban tramway with the surrounding railway network, by means of light rail vehicles often provided with special wheel profiles in order to fit both grooved and flat-bottomed rails. This paper aims to

Field investigation on vibration behavior of railway track systems
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Abstract: Investigations on vibration behaviors of railway track systems were attempted in this research. This was made by conducting a comprehensive field investigation into the free vibration of track systems and response of tracks to train moving loads. In-situ modal

Wheel-rail profiles matching design considering railway track parameters
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Abstract: The profile of wheel/rail has great concern with the vehicle running safety, the wheel/rail wear and the rolling contact fatigue between wheel and rail, due to its severer impact on the dynamic behavior of both the railway vehicle/track, and the wheel/rail rolling

Behaviour of a portion of railway track under maintenance operation
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Abstract The track deterioration rate is strongly influenced by the ballast behaviour under traffic. In order to restore the initial track geometry, different maintenance processes are performed, like tamping, dynamic stabilisation. A better understanding of the ballast

Integrated numerical and experimental research of railway track structures
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SUMMARY For the analysis of rail track structures a procedure is proposed where experimental data are processed directly by numerical models of real sized rail track structures. For the design of new rail track structures and the evaluation of existing track

Assessment and improvement of railway track safety
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Summary: In this paper, an approach has been developed to assess safety of the railway track by estimating the probability of derailment. Models for probability of derailment are developed based on undetected rail breaks and poor track quality using Petri-Nets and

Lateral resistance of railway track
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Increasing the speed limit of railway tracks is applicable by welding rail joints and employing Continues Welded Rails (CWR). Unfortunately, there are large numbers of curves with the radius less than 400 m in the most conventional railway tracks. Field investigations show

Computer application for railway track realignment
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Abstract The topic of this article is the issue of railway track realignment. For this purpose, a computer software application was created that supports computations and generates a report needed for regulation of the trajectory of the railway. This program gives the ability

Innovative railway track surveying with sensors and controlled by wireless communication
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Abstract Micro Electro Mechanical Switch (MEMS) are small integrated devices or systems that combine electrical and mechanical components. This sensors are used by many engineering disciplines because of their high-precision characteristics. In addition, Global

On Vertical Analysis of Railway Track Vibrations
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The paper herein presents a vertical vibration analysis of the ballasted track using a new model of the periodic support of the rail that improves the prediction of the rail response for both low and high frequencies. The model of the periodic support consists of two three-

Three-dimensional dynamic models of a railway track for high-speed trains
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Modem means of railway transportation in Western Europe are being currently developed to further reduce the travelling time for passengers. Cruise velocities of such high-speed trains etc. are nowadays in the range of 200-300

Train-induced Dynamic Response of Railway Track and Embankments on Soft Peaty Foundations.
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Abstract The mainline railway track between Dublin and Belfast in Northern Ireland was constructed during the 1850's. Substantial lengths of railway embankment were constructed over poor-quality peaty soils. This was accomplished using tree trunk fascines placed

Developing a Cost-Effective Renewal Strategy for Railway Track on Conventional Networks
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Summary Due to increasing budget pressures, operational restrictions and the restructuring of the European railways, the life cycle costing '(LCC) concept gets more and more attention: the Infrastructure Manager (IM) can use LCC to systematically underpin and

Solving single-track railway scheduling problem using constraint programming
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A job-shop scheduling model for the single-track railway scheduling problem
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Abstract The Single-Track Railway Scheduling Problem can be modelled as a special case of the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem. This can be achieved by considering the train trips as jobs, which will be scheduled on tracks regarded as resources. A train trip may have many

'Investigation on modeling of railway track system
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Today's most important need in the engiNeering is to improve track of railway ity, strength and stability as well as increasing efficiency, especially for clavier axle loads and higher speeds. This goal can be achieved by providing a better understanding of the static

Investigation on the effect of railway track support system characteristics on the values oftrack modulus
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Abstract In this research, the variation of railway track modulus as a function of ballast layer thickness and subgrade characteristics is investigated using numerical modeling. Track modulus plays an essential role in the analysis of railway track systems and is regarded

Some results of performance indicators of a railway track obtained during its renewal process
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ABSTRACT In the scope of the modernization of the old railways, particularly when it is necessary to make the renewal of the platform, it is important to have performance indicators of the railway track that permit to evaluate its quality, to design the set of works to be done

Design of Double Railway Track on AuGeo Piling System
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ABSTRACT This paper describes a preliminary design of the piled embankment according the AuGeo-method for sections of the proposed double railway track . The railway has to be extended to two tracks. Some sections of the second track will be located

Innovations in Railway Track
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Renewal is an integral part of existence itself, a rule to which railway infrastructure is no exception. Yet renewal goes beyond simply replacing worn-out track and components. Renewal involves keeping abreast of developments, both at home and abroad, becoming

Influences of rail support conditions on mechanical behavior of railway track system
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ABSTRACT All components of the track suffer from a variation in the performance during their lifetime to a different degree. These variations include replacement of timber sleepers with concrete sleepers and changes in the ballast conditions due to tamping or track

Multicriteria Optimisation of Railway Track for High-Speed Lines
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ABSTRACT The paper presents results of multicriteria optimum design of an embedded rail structure (ERS). The optimality criteria are based on the requirements to railway tracks related to cost efficiency of the design, minimum noise emission and minimum wear of

Influence of ground impedance on the sound radiation of a railway track
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Railway rolling noise is radiated by the vibration of the rail and wheel. The TWINS model is well established as a method of predicting the generation of vibration and noise and this has been used successfully to design noise mitigation measures. However, the existing model

Railroad vehicle modelling in probabilistic vibration analysis of a railway bridge with randomly fluctuating track ballast stiffness
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ABSTRACT: The paper presents an efficient method for analysing an influence of random changes in ballast stiffness on railway bridge vibrations caused by a train passage. Three different types of train model are taken into account: a sequence of moving forces, a set of

Lumped mass model of vertical dynamic coupling of a railway track on elastic homogeneous or layered halfspace
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ABSTRACT: The mechanical model of track and foundation is presented in this paper, considering a lumped mass model for the soil. From the Lysmer Analog model, widely used for soil impedance characterisation, an extension is proposed considering the coupling

A study of the track degradation process related to changes in railway traffic
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Several ideas have been thought in the area of railway technology. These include thought both by elderly men in grey hair and by youngsters with little or no experience but with a fresh and unrestricted mind. This is a statement based on observations at several railway

System analysis of train operations and track occupancy at railway stations
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A system analysis approach is presented for investigation of train operations in railway stations based on network, timetable and train detection data. The estimated blocking times, buffer times and track occupancies are compared with real operations data recorded

An insertion loss model for evaluating the performance of floating-slab track for under ground railway tunnels
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Abstract This paper discusses a comprehensive three-dimensional model of a deep underground railway tunnel. The model consists of Euler-Bernoulli beams to account for the rails and the slab track. These are coupled to an infinite continuum (pipe-inpipe) model,

Prediction of Permanent Deformation in Railway Track
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ABSTRACT This research investigated the deformation behaviour of railway ballast, particularly the vertical settlements under repeated traffic loading. Experiments were conducted to study ballast deformation and particle breakage under different confining

Analyzing the incremental transition from single to double track railway lines
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Abstract Long term demand for rail freight transportation in North America is projected to increase considerably in the coming decades. Additionally, government agencies want to increase the speed and frequency of passenger trains operating on certain freight lines,

Damage Detection of Railway Track by Sensor Using Advanced RISC Machine
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Abstract-Ultrasonic distance measuring sensors are widely used in many industrial establishments and particularly in the metrology area. These sensors are used in many engineering disciplines because of their highprecision Characteristics of different methods

Computer aided design of railway track
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Despite many years of operating experience the design of railway track is a semi-empirical exercise based largely on the engineering experience of the designer. This is due mainly to a lack of understanding of the various components which constitute a railway track system

Buckling Stability of Railway Track in Earthquake
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SUMMARY It has been reported so far that large lateral deformations were caused in railway track in time of earthquake even when the roadbed did not show any obvious damages. These has been considered a problem of stability of track to longitudinal force in

Feasibility of EPS as a lightweight sub-base material in railway track structures
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Abstract The paper presents results of a study on feasibility of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) material in a railway track design. In this research, performance of a track structure without ballast, a so-called Embedded Rail Structure (ERS), with an EPS layer between a

Use of Nelder-Mead simplex method to arc fitting for railway track realignment
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Abstract The development of technology implies the elaboration of new calculation methods. Such methods should be precise and efficient. The article presents a new method of railway track realignment. The example considered in the article consists of an circular arc that is

Some computer aided design studies of cane railway track
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Cane railway track has usually been constructed without the aid of formal design studies. Pierce and Murry (1981) reviewed the application of the rail track design package produced by the Bureau of Transport Economics (BTE) and discussed its possible application to

Validation of a reduced model of railway track allowing long 3D dynamic calculation of train-track interaction
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ABSTRACT: In order to face challenges of increased traffic and speed on their infrastructures, railway companies need to develop numerical tools able to predict the dynamic behaviour of the track. Currently, two approaches are widely used: the first one is

Modeling of work of a railway track at the dynamic effects of a wheel pair
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Abstract:This paper is concerned with the modeling of the behavior of railway tracks under a dynamic load of wheel set taking into account the elastic, viscous-elastic and elastic- plastic properties of the interaction region between two solid bodies and elastic

Improving the safety of the railway track infrastructure using insitu polyurethane geocomposites
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ABSTRACT There are many issues related to the safety of the railway track infrastructure, such as tolerance issues in stations and tunnels, poor track formations, critical track velocity effects for high-speed lines (both subseismic and transeismic regimes), voiding at rail

Numerical modeling of railway track supporting system using finite infinite and thin layer elements
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Abstract The present contribution deals with the numerical modeling of railway track- supporting systems-using coupled finite-infinite elements-to represent the near and distant field stress distribution, and also employing a thin layer interface element to account for

Field and laboratory procedures for investigating the fouling process within railway trackballast
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ABSTRACT This project details the field and laboratory methods designed and employed to investigate railway track fouling near Joliette, QC. A field trenching methodology was developed to obtain samples at specific locations within the rail embankment. During the

Redundantly engineered points (REPOINT) for enhanced reliability and capacity of railway track switching
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Abstract:Points on railway networks enable different routes through the network to be achieved, thereby allowing rail-transport links between many different destinations. However, they are critical parts of the network as a points failure often leads to delays, re-

Actions on a Railway Track, due to an Isolated Defect
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Abstract The rail running table imposes to the vehicle a forced vibration. It is not smooth but instead it comprises a lot of faults that give to the rail running table a random surface. Furthermore under the primary suspension there are the Unsprung Masses which act

Railway track geometry defect modeling: deterioration, derailment risk and optimal repair
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Analyzing track geometry defects is critical for safe and effective railway transportation. Repairing the 2 right number and type of track geo-defects can appropriately reduce the probability of derailments. 3 Additionally, prioritized track geometry repair work reduces

Interactions between multiple moving wheels and a railway track
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ABSTRACT In this paper an approach is presented for the wheel/rail interactions generated by multiple wheels moving along a railway track which is an infinitely long periodic structure. This 'moving wheel approach utilises the wave number based method of calculation for

Design of double track railway Bidor-Rawang on AuGeo Piling System according to BS8006 and PLAXIS numerical analysis
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ABSTRACT This paper describes the design of a piled embankment constructed according to the AuGeo-method for sections of the proposed double railway track The railway has to be extended to two tracks. Some sections of the second track will be

Prediction of ground vibrations induced by urban railway traffic: an analysis of the coupling assumptions between vehicle, track, soil, and buildings
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This paper is concerned with the problem of ground vibrations induced by railway traffic and its modelling through a decoupled approach, using only the finite element modelling for evaluating the ground waves propagation. The vehicle/track dynamics is calculated

Job-shop Problems with Objectives Appropriate for Train Scheduling in a Single-track Railway.
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Abstract: A train scheduling problem in a single-track railway is studied using a mixed graph model for a job-shop with appropriate criteria. There are several performance evaluations for a train schedule. Optimizing a train schedule subtends minimizing total tardiness of the

Shifting bottleneck algorithm for train scheduling in a single-track railway
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Abstract: A problem of train timetabling for a single-track railway is studied using a disjunctive graph model for the corresponding job-shop. The objective is to minimize the total weighted tardiness of the given trains. A shifting bottleneck algorithm is developed

Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Railway Track
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ABSTRACT A ballast and a subballast layer placed above a compacted subgrade (formation soil) is the conventional structure of a railway track system. Upgrading the tracks with the current traffic condition requires the new design methodologies and the parametric studies

GPS Based Railway Track Survey System
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Abstract:Now a days due to natural disaster like floods, earthquake, cyclone, etc. there are many accidents are occurring in Railways due to cracks in the rails. System have some limitations and delay in delivering the signals, if the bridges or track got damaged, the

Dynamics of railway track
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Abstract The classic and reinforced railway track is composed of two infinite rails separated from sleepers by visco-elastic pads. There are numerous assumptions leading to different simplifications in railway track modelling. The rails are modelled as infinite Timoshenko

Integrated solutions for calculus of electromagnetic perturbation of railway track with real traffic conditions
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Abstract:A new calculation method to estimate the interference current of an electrified railway network is presented and discussed. This program takes into account two intertwined needs: the correct assessment of electromagnetic (EM) perturbation and the

Numerical simulation of the vertical interaction between railway vehicle and track
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], concerning the vertical interaction between railway vehicle and track, where random irregularities of track vertical profile are considered. A Matlab/Simulink simulator has been developed to simulate the

Theoretical Traffic Loads and Classification of Turkish Railway Network according to theTrack Maintenance
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Various kinds of rail vehicles are running on a railway track such as; passenger vehicles, freight vehicles, mainline locomotives, shunting engines. The algebraic sum of the vehicle loads cannot give an accurate picture of the running load, because it does not take into

Effects of rail fastening on railway track noise
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ABSTRACT This paper describes measurements of deflection, vibration, and noise on three different track forms. The measurements were carried out as part of the Silent Track European project on railway noise at the Velim test centre in the Czech Republic in May

The effect of railpad nonlinearity on the dynamic behaviour of railway track
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Railway tracks are commonly constructed with railpads that attenuate the level of vibration and impact transmitted to them from railway vehicles. The stiffness and damping properties of railpads have significant effects on track vibration and forces transmitted to the track

50 Hz track circuits parallel to a 25 kV 50 Hz railway line
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Abstract In the port of Rotterdam a new freight line, the so-called Havenspoorlijn is built partly alongside an existing DC subway line . This freight line will be equipped with a 25 kV 50 Hz power supply. The signalling system of the subway uses

Modelling of ground vibrations in the vicinity of a tangent railway track
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This paper presents a numerical prediction model that allows investigating the wave propagation in horizontally layered soils, in the vicinity of typical urban track systems. The two substructures, ie the track system and the soil is modelled separately, using a

Vibration of the railway track-viaduct system under moving vehicles taking into account the interaction effect
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Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the interaction on the dynamic behaviour of a simply supported single span railway concrete viaduct for which measurement results are available, taking into account the railway track. We compare the

Stress on Ballast-Bed and Deterioration of Geometry in a Railway Track
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Abstract: In Greece extended cracking of twin-block concrete sleepers (ties) and fouling of the ballast-bed were observed with implied problems of gauge widening and deterioration of track's geometry. This led to a ten-year investigation program, during which a new method

New advances in analysis and design of railway track system
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A ballasted railway track system comprises several components among which steel rails, rail fasteners, timber, steel or concrete sleepers, granular ballast, sub-ballast, and subgrade materials are the main parts. Railway track systems are constructed to provide a smooth

Holes, Antiholes, and Maximal Cliques in a Railway Model for a Single Track
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Abstract We present a graph theoretical model for scheduling trains on a single unidirectional track between two stations. The set of departures of all possible train types at all possible (discrete) points of time is turned into an undirected graph G by joining two

RAMS analysis of railway track infrastructure
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ABSTRACT Railway infrastructures are assets which represent a high investment. They are designed to work in very demanding safety conditions and must display a very low occurrence of failures. Rail tracks are components which are subject to the development

A numerical program for railway vehicle-track-structure dynamic interaction using a modal substructuring approach
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Summary This thesis work proposes a method for the simulation of the dynamic interaction between vehicle and railway track. The model has been designed to take into account the

Degradation of Railway Ballast Through Large Scale Triaxial and Full Scale Rail Track Model Tests: Comparison with Mechanical Laboratory Tests
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to assess if the standard tests provided a reliable ranking of nine ballast aggregate materials with respect to mechanical strength. Standard tests were compared with the results from large scale triaxial and full scale model tests

Dynamic analysis of pitch plane Railway vehicle-track interactions due to wheel flat
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ABSTRACT With demands for increased load and speed, the issue of wheel flats and a strategy for in-time maintenance and replacement of defective wheels has become an important concern for heavy haul operators. In this study, an analytical model of the

Mitigation of railway induced vibrations by using heavy masses next to the track
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ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of heavy masses next to the track to reduce railway induced vibration is discussed. These heavy masses next to the track could be built as a gabion wall also used as noise barriers or as a concrete wall. Since the performance of mitigation

European standardisation related to railway noise emission: New standards to assess the reference track performances
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Limits on the emission of noise from railway vehicles are required in the context of the of EU directives on the interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail and conventional rail systems. The technical requirements for this are specified in the Technical Specifications

Inefficient, unprofitable, but still on the track! An exploration of why the Swiss have hardly dismantled their railway system
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Abstract In the course of the 20 th century the Swiss railway industry, which has to be considered an anomaly because of its division into a state sector and a so-called private one, got into financial difficulties, as did the railways in other countries. Almost all

Flexible Track Models in Railway Dynamics Using a Finite Element Formulation
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Abstract The dynamic analysis of railway vehicles involves the construction of three independent models: the vehicle model; the track model; and the wheel-rail contact model. In this paper, a finite element methodology is proposed to create detailed three-

The influence of the track on railway induced ground vibration
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A combined boundary finite element method had been developed to calculate the vibrations of different flexible or rigid structures on the soil . Railway tracks have been thoroughly investigated by this method . It is shown what are the effects of additional

Analysis of the Vehicle-Track-Structure-Soil Dynamic Interaction of Railway Bridges for HST
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Abstract. The dynamic vehicle-track-bridge-soil interaction is studied on high speed lines. The analysis is carried out using a general and fully three dimensional multi-body-finite element boundary element model, formulated in the time domain to predict vibrations due

Track decay rate of different railway noise test sites
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For noise type testing of rolling stock the vehicle shall contribute mainly to total pass-by noise. As a consequence a test track is needed, which radiate only little noise. There is an intensive discussion in the scientific community how to specify a low radiating test track. In

Innovative Railway Track Surveying With Sensors and Controlled By Wireless Communication
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Abstract Micro Electro Mechanical Switch (MEMS) are small integrated devices or systems that combine electrical and mechanical components. These sensors are used by many engineering disciplines because of their high-precision characteristics. In addition, Global

Railway Vehicle Modelling on an Isolated Track Defect of a Cosine Form
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Abstract:-During the motion of a railway vehicle on a rail, with a rail running table/surface of a random form, the rail running table imposes to the vehicle a forced oscillation. Due to different reasons manufacturing, corrosion, deterioration etc.-the rail's running surface is

RAILWAY TRACK CRACK DETECTION AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE
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Abstract: India has one of the world's largest railway networks, manual Inspection and detecting a crack on these railways tracks is very tedious process and consumes lot of time and human resource. The project aims in designing railway track crack detection

ADVANCED RAILWAY SECURITY SYSTEM (ARSS) BASED ON ZIGBEE COMMUNICATION FOR TRACK FAULT DETECTION
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ABSTRACT: The main aim of this paper is to develop an embedded system to identifying rail track fault sending message to near station using ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY. The Transportation of train always depends on railway tracks (rails) only. If there is a crack in these rails, it

FEM Based Improvement of CAD for Non-Conventional Railway Track
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Implementation of new modelling methods for railway tracks in both cases the ballasted track and the slab track requires various experiments, including numerical analysis being a basis for further design . Designing of the railway track needs a consideration of a large Summary Track dynamic behaviour is important for the prediction of the rolling noise, corrugation growth and track damage. Various models have been developed in the literature but problems still remain. On the one hand, analytical models become insufficient

Automatic Railway Track Crack Detection using GSM GPS
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Abstract: In India rail transport occupies a prominent position in providing the necessary transport infrastructure to sustain needs of a rapidly growing economy. Today, India possesses the fourth largest railway network in the world. However, in terms of the

Robust Railway Track Crack Detection using MEMS Technology
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Abstract In India, most of the commercial transport is being carried out by the railway network and therefore, any problems in the same has the capacity to induce major damage to the economy notwithstanding the societal impact of loss of life or limb. Economic prosperity

railway track health monitoring system



Railway track structural health monitoring system
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Abstract: Railway is one of the most used means of transportation. For the railway system to operate flawlessly constant monitoring and inspection of railway tracks is required. Currently railway track inspection and monitoring is done manually which is time taking and not

Structural Health Monitoring in the Railway Field by Fiber-Optic Sensors
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A fiber-optic distributed sensor has been employed for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures The results indicate that, gluing an optical fiber along the railtrack, running conditions Furthermore, dynamic strain measurements on a rail bridge have been reported, aimed

Long-term structural health monitoring system for a high-speed railway bridge structure
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supports a six-line railway, including two regular rails, two high-speed railways, and two reason of train derailment is that the transverse vibration of the train-railway-bridge system the transverse and vertical vibration characteristics of two main spans due to the rail irregularity in [HTML]

Evaluation of High-Speed Railway Bridges Based on a Nondestructive Monitoring System
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1a, is a composite steel box girder bridge with 50 m span supports two line high-speed railways. the vertical vibration characteristics of two sides of the bridge due to the rail irregularity in measurements can be used to detect the performance of high-speed railway bridges based tested on a variety of color video-sequences taken from the point of view of trains moving along railwaystracks. of various infrastructures, such as rail longitudinal stress detection, rail displacement and crawling detection, rail integrity and railway embankment settlement Therefore, one can conclude that the variability introduced by the hammer test procedure in railway tracks is negligible if the vertical Second, the rail should be excited at the middle of the rail head, as close as possible to the 4. FRF-based statistical method applied to railways.

Perspectives on railway track geometry condition monitoring from in-service railwayvehicles
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Measurement and analysis of train motion and railway track characteristics with inertial This provided vertical left and right rail geometry that could be mutually aligned and compared. Inspection of track from in-service freight trains

Monitoring bolt tightness of rail joints using axle box acceleration measurements
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30kHz, and a sensitivity of 50mV/g. The accelerometer chosen is suitable for railway application as a system to other types of damage at RJs, such as cracks in the rail web, IRJs found in many networks worldwide, and broad range of speed, from metros to conventional railways.

Railway infrastructure damage detection using wavelet transformed acceleration response of traversing vehicle
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GPS) should lead to an up to date state report of the existing railway network Most of the existing literature analyse urban railways, at lower speeds, and small radius curves proposes a wavelet-based automatic assessment methodology that can be implemented on rail networks frequency diversity (FD) using modified sensors to monitor an underground railway tunnel where the sections analyze existing WSNs for condition monitoring on the railways and conducts health monitoring of infrastructure, including rail bridges, tunnels, railtracks and track

Modeling on energy harvesting from a railway system using piezoelectric transducers
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such as running velocity, location and axle load) and the health status of tracks, bridges and to moving multi-loads is adopted to describe the dynamic behavior of railway track structure. electric power of piezoelectric transducers installed at the bottom of a steel rail are derived

The detection of wheel-flats based on fiber optic Bragg grating array
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installed on each side of a rail to detect imbalances on the two sides of rail wheels. the left and right rails at low cost to measure the important parameters for the railway engineer in 12 encapsulated sensors are welded attach to the bottom surface of the track on both sides, and

Drive-by structural health monitoring of railway bridges using train mounted accelerometers
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In this study, the acceleration response of a railway vehicle is generated using a validated finite The authors are in the process of acquiring accelerometers to attach to an Irish Rail train vehicle responses of a vehicle can be obtained while it traverses a section of track featuring a

Improvements in axle box acceleration measurements for the detection of light squats in railway infrastructure
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Japanese high- speed railways [23] Squats may cause rail fracture and catastrophic consequences if not treated in time. the nonparametric response function ( ) T x H f which is given by the wavelet power spectrum in the frequency domain f. The railway tracksystem is shown

Traffic deduction exploring sensor data's intra-correlations in train track monitoring WSN
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to examine the transmission performance when the Wi-SUN sensors are placed near the real railwaytrack. and West), and the train travels between the two terminals on the track as illustrated Wireless sensor nodes are placed along the train tracks to help monitor the train track

STIM: smart train infrastructure monitoring
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3. DEPLOYMENT We have deployed our system on Pittsburgh's Light RailSystem, and have been collecting data for more 2. The signals before and after tamping are similar in most parts of the track, except where Structural healthmonitoring in the railway industry: a review.

Development of a long-term, multimetric structural health monitoring system for a historic steel truss swing bridge
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Structural healthmonitoring is intended to supplement not replace visual bridge inspec- tion by However, AREMA (American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Associa- tion) has prepared bridge inspection are equally valid for the inspection of rail- road bridges

Severity and growth evaluation of rail corrugations on sharp curves using wheel/railinteraction
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Analysis of influence factors in rail corrugation on sharp curve of metro, Railway Standard Design, 2013-08, 2013. The city rail safety detection sensor network platform using online track detection, in Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, [HTML]

Using wireless sensor networks and trains as data mules to monitor slab trackinfrastructures
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The sensors deployed in the railways make use of the IEEE 802.15.4 [17] protocol Railway infrastructures cover really large areas, possibly in places where there is no Internet coverage frequency pair) that correspond to the main frequencies at which the slab track vibrates and

Rail vehicle and rail track monitoring system a key part in transport sustainable development
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out the world are suffering, the large area of land for the construction of roads, railways, airports and In case of high-speed rail vehicles, it is ex- tremely important to monitor axle bearing Railway vehicle suspension deter- mines significantly riding dynamics, safety and comfort.

Harvesting energy from the vibration of a passing train using a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator
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cycle, the result would be that a relatively long initial transient would occur before the system reaches its Such energy could be used to power or recharge batteries of rail-side equipment, such as wireless sensors for monitoring railway track health and temperature [HTML]

Sensor4PRI: A sensor platform for the protection of railway infrastructures
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In general, the majority of the proposals present a WSN architecture to monitor the infrastructure (railways, bridges, etc Railway Standard. CENELEC 50128: Rail applications Communications, signaling and processing systems Safety related electronic systems for signaling.

The Long-Term Settlement Deformation Automatic Monitoring System for the Chinese High-Speed Railway
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security operations and important infrastructure systems, such as the high-speed railways, are discrete application of optical fiber sensing technology to monitor the status of railsystems has become a and track slab structures, bridge tunnels, the side slopes of railway lines, and

Real-time monitoring of railway infrastructures using fibre Bragg grating sensors
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Even if the technology is well consolidated, it is not very efficient for railways, since it is along the line 2 of the subway of Milan, near a heavily used suburban railway line with system, a dedicated statistical algorithm permits to isolate the single contributions of the rail and the When these methods are applied to a railway axle however, significant additional issues need to be addressed, mainly because railway axles are rotating at speeds well below Furthermore, heavy disturbance caused by wheel rail contact in presence of track irregularity and

A study of railway wheel profile parameters used as indicators of an increased risk of wheel defects
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5. International Union of Railways. Atlas of wheel and rail defects. Paris: International Union of Railways, Guidelines to best practices for heavy haul railway operations: infra- structure construction and maintenance issues. University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK 2 Network Rail, James Forbes The new development will comprise of 9 through and 6 terminating tracks as well as to be monitored continuously throughout the project, in particular the railway track and arches.

Rail squats: understand its causes, severity, and non-destructive evaluation techniques
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[2] M. Ishida. "Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) defect of rails in Japanese railways and its mitigation strategies," Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 13(1), 67-74, 2013. Wheel/rail conditions and squat A review on loading conditions for railway track structures due to train

Nonlinear finite element modelling of railway turnout system considering bearer/sleeper-ballast interaction
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The British Railways Board expressed that the permissible track forces in a low frequency range Monitoring structural deterioration of railway turnout systems via dynamic wheel/rail interaction, Case

Diagnostic of flexural damage on railway prestressed concrete sleepers using dynamic modal responses
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prestressed concrete sleepers are often hidden from visual inspections during trackmonitoring and maintenance force incurs coincide with unstable two point contacts between wheel and rail. tool for structural health of prestressed concrete sleepers in railwaytracks using the Field measurement and structural health monitoring (SHM) have been recognized as effective tools for bridge stress acquisition The bridge, carrying a single railtrack and crossing the Nanpai River, is located on the Shuo-Huang Railway Line in Metrovalencia operates the commuter services in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain) connected by a narrow gauge railway network, ie 1,000 mm. Table 4. Different features for both track configurations. Rails, UIC-54, UIC-54. Rail mass per unit length, m, 54 kg/m, 54 kg/m.

A Combined Structural Health Monitoring and Weigh-in-Motion System for Railway Bridges
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A vast number of bridges which are critical to the efficiency of road and rail transport networks are Initial results for the railway B-WIM system showed that one of the four trains of known This approach may be feasible by using test trains on a track periodically to check for damage

Maintenance decision indicators for treating squats in railway infrastructures
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Understanding the crack evolution process is critical to ensure safe and cost-efficient railway operation. A rail-grinding program is a critical component of profile optimisation in any rail maintenance program Dutch railways typically have a cyclic grinding regime. data, which is in general difficult to obtain [5]. Especially for our application in railways, due to it is not realistic to assume that this will be realized for the whole rail infrastructure, as the receiver, which is, in the Netherlands, already measured for a large number of railway sections

Long-term monitoring and analysis of hanger vibration of a high-speed railway steel truss arch bridge
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2). Its 336m main span and 6-track railways rank itself the largest bridge with 2006), Field testing and simulation of dynamic properties of a tied arch railway bridge, Engineering Assessment of Bridge Deck using Long-Term Monitoring Data, Structural HealthMonitoring 2013, 1

Mitigating the effects of variable speed on drive-by infrastructure monitoring
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more cost effective approach to monitor the health of bridges, roads, or tracks in a railway is through the ations on we placed railtrack the track changes simulated with a wire, only aligned features showed significant success (~80%) at classifying minor track changes simulated [HTML]

Early-Warning Method of Train Running Safety of a High-Speed Railway Bridge Based on Transverse Vibration Monitoring
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With its 336 m main span and 6-trackrailways it ranks itself the largest bridge with trains at the same speed varied much, mainly because of the various wheel-rail contact states of (1) When high-speed trains passed by, the transverse vibration of the train-railway-bridge system

Model updating of railway bridge using in situ dynamic displacement measurement under trainloads
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In this study, the dynamic response of the railway bridge in the vertical direction is considered without the The elasticity and damping properties of the rail bed are represented by a series of springs The track on the embankment is modeled as a beam on a viscoelastic foundation

Monitoring vertical wheel rail contact forces based on freight wagon inverse modelling
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An algorithm for railtrackhealth assessment is formulated as an inverse identification problem of dynamic parameters of the rail vehicle system. Track irregularities are identified using this procedure. 14. Monitoring the WR dynamic forces is very important for railway operations.

Real-time signal processing of guided waves acquired on high-speed trains for health monitoring of bogie systems
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responses under several working conditions (eg, startup, acceleration, full-speed operation, track change, emergency Gao, X. In-motion ultrasonic testing of the tread of high- speed railway wheels using Ultrasonic and eddy-current inspection of rail wheels and wheel set axles

Longitudinal force measurement in continuous welded rail with bi-directional FBG strain sensors
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In contrast, FBG sensor is increasingly favored in railway application for its ability of anti-electromagnetic interference, high Tam et al, Yuen et al, Lai et al performed real-time monitoring on track and vehicle based on the relationship between rail deformation and rail 234 (2007) [3] Kaewunruen, S., Remennikov, AM: Dynamic flexural influence on a railway concrete sleeper D., de Vos, P. (eds.) Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems. Technical Report TR162, RailCorp Track Engineering, Sydney NSW, 14 p. (2009) [6

Stress Influence Line Identification of Long Suspension Bridges Installed with StructuralHealth Monitoring Systems
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exist in stress responses, and such fluctuation mainly result from the dynamic im- pact factor, rail irregularity or Therefore, the railway loading of this train can be represented by 16 vertical forces, with each representing one Arrival time 7 November 2005 at 5:46:37 am Track no. damage to DNA, and the inhibition of the immune system caused by PM [6] and [7]. Public health related studies Monitoring method. the deepest, resulting in the accumulation of coarse particles generated by the mechanical frictions between the wheels and rail-tracks and brake

1508. On-line monitoring of vertical long wavelength track irregularities using bogie pitch rate.
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13] designed an on board track fault diagnosis device for advanced railway condition monitoring. also contains ingredients such as rolling bearing fault, wheel tread fault, wheel and rail out of When the train passes through short track defects like squats, welds with poor finishing

Global Sensitivity Analysis applied to Model Inversion Problems: A Contribution to RailCondition Monitoring
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important RAMS-killers and the track geometry as well as rail head quality as the most important cost drivers (International Union of Railways (UIC), 2010). The task of a modern railway condition monitoring is therefore to provide a sufficient data base of reliable condition

real time railway monitoring system



Real time monitoring of railway traffic using fiber Bragg grating sensors
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Spain in the Trans European high speed network, connecting with French railways through its presented a preliminary study on the use of FBG sensors for monitoring railway footprints of there is a consistence between the signals recorded and the wheel-rail interactions under

Survey of wireless communications applications in the railway industry
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These vehicle health monitoring (VHM) systems for railways are used to monitor these quantities inside failure could potentially result in the loss of life's, damage of rail infrastructure or we will validate the proposal and design an energy-efficient protocol for railway applications.

Utilization of fiber optic Bragg Grating sensing systems for health monitoring inrailway applications
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revolutionize the railway industry and to update conventional systems into 'Smart Railways', thereby providing The FBG sensors can be used to monitor many important railway sub-systems such monitors, train load detectors as well as serving as continuous rail crack detectors.

Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural health monitoring of Tsing Ma bridge: Background and experimental observation
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the strain of different parts of the TMB under both the railway and highway implemented by the Highways Department of Hong Kong SAR Government to monitor the structural are also described, and the preliminary observation results on the structural health monitoring of the

Impedance-based health monitoring of civil structural components
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Earthquake Damage Monitoring for Underground Structures Based Damage Detection Techniques." International Journal of Railway Piezoelectric Sensor-Based HealthMonitoring of Rail road Tracks Using a Two and Cu were also assumed to be particles originating from the worn out of wheel and rail. For iron, it was assumed to have originated mainly from brakes and tracks of the metro In a study conducted in Hong Kong, levels of particulate matter in railway transport were compared

Structural health monitoring activities of applying optical fiber sensors in taiwan
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of a bridge was conducted to study the axial stress distribution and train-track-bridge interaction 2. Installation of the FBG sensors and monitoring of the performance of railwaytracks. used to measure the dynamic deflection curves of the viaduct of high speed railsystems due to

Neural networks trained by analytically simulated damage states
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Applicability of a Fuzzy Genetic System for Crack Diagnosis "The HealthMonitoring of Bridges using "Time-delay neural networks in damage detection of railway bridges." Advances in Engineering Software,

Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure
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in Australia have focused on the typical very short-span highway and railway bridges; in accelerometers and data acquisition equipment and developments of random decrement techniques to track fundamental mode so far does not play a major role in tracking the health

Fatigue analysis and life prediction of bridges with structural health monitoring data Part I: methodology and strategy
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The development of the structural health monitoring system provides an efficient way to get an accurate the most heavily instrumented bridge project of the integrated online monitoring system in the of strain gauges installed for the Tsing Ma Bridge including rail track sections at

Use of ORP for monitoring and control of aerobic sludge digestion
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The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was monitored within aerobic sludge digesters undergoing alternating "Potential strategies for process control and monitoring of stabilization reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate." Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part

Issues in infrastructure health monitoring for management
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Monitoring of Railway Loading Effects. Structural HealthMonitoring of Long-Span Suspension Bridges.

Real-time train wheel condition monitoring by fiber Bragg grating sensors
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low in optical loss and immunity from EMI is particular suitable for electrified railways with track with a fiber-optic sensor, in Proceedings of the ASME/IEEE 2006 Joint Rail Conference (JRC HY Tam, SY Liu, WH Chung, TK Ho, SL Ho, and KK Lee, Smart railway sensor network

Phase I IASC-ASCE structural health monitoring benchmark problem using simulated data
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The Bayesian methodology for the detection of railway ballast damage under a concrete sleeper Engineering Structures, SMC structural health monitoring benchmark problem using monitored data from an actual cable

Wavelet-based approach for structural damage detection
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Detection of loose fasteners in a third rail support assembly using a wavelet Monitoring of Railway Loading Effects. Structural HealthMonitoring of Long-Span Suspension Bridges.

Structural health monitoring of railroad wheels using wheel impact load detectors
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Railway wheel out-of-roundness Influence of wheel-rail contact forces and track response. 13th International

Monitoring-based fatigue reliability assessment of steel bridges: analytical model and application
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sensing, data acquisition, computing, communication, data and information management, have greatly promoted the applications of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology 2. The strain gauge SPTLS16 was installed under the track plate of the railway beam composed

Preface to the special issue on phase I of the IASC-ASCE structural health monitoringbenchmark
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"System identification of super high-rise buildings using limited vibration data during the "Damage identification of substructure for local healthmonitoring." Smart Structures and Kalman Filter for Structural Damage Identification." Journal of Infrastructure Systems,

Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural and railway applications
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Alternatively, two FBG sensors installed on the railtrack, separated by a known distance can also be used to The results of a one-hour track are shown in Figure 11. detect train passages and due to their many inherent characteristics, their potential in the railway applications is In the railway industry, the maintenance periods are mainly based on mileage, and The monitoring of bogie mechanical components, such as the track, wheels, and bearings, has been largely connected to the shaft in order to allow the simulation of the wheel rail inter action.

GPS measurement of wind-induced suspension bridge girder displacements
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2013. Monitoring of Railway Loading Effects. Development and application of a vision-based displacement measurement system for structural healthmonitoring of civil structures." Smart Structures and Systems,

A summary review of wireless sensors and sensor networks for structural health monitoring
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2. Hardware Design of Wireless Sensor Platforms for Structural HealthMonitoring For example, to monitor a large-scale civil structure, communication ranges in excess of Realizing the need to reduce the costs associated with wired structural monitoringsystems, Straser and

Damage detection in structures based on feature-sensitive neural networks
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"Application of a Web-enabled real-time structural healthmonitoringsystem for civil "Structural healthmonitoring and damage "Time-delay neural networks in damage detection of railway bridges." Advances in Engineering Software, 10.1016/S0965-9978(96)00038-5, 1-10.

Monitoring traffic loads and dynamic effects using an instrumented railway bridge
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that can be used to identify/monitor trends in railway traffic which, in turn, can be used to develop design trains for railway bridge codes; (iii) it will provide data for the quality control of wheel tread and rail surface, leading to lower bridge/track maintenance costs

Noisespy: A real-time mobile phone platform for urban noise monitoring and mapping
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Continuous access to this information would allow him/her to track movements of an unknown user. unit that will house a number of optional sensors to monitor environment, health and local modelling techniques, based on information such as traffic flow data, road/rail type, and

Real-time monitoring of railway traffic using slope-assisted Brillouin distributed sensors
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In [8], high spatial resolution strain measurements over a 2.8 m railtrack length are reported. The rail sector selected for real-timemonitoring tests was a continuous welded rail situated near The line, belonging to the railway network Ferrovie del Gargano, is crossed by only one

Rail track and rail vehicle intelligent monitoring system
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In the area of monitoring of railwaytracks and vehicles, some patents can be found. track, damage is detected by the system, with a high certainty it is caused by track roughness To detect failures of rail vehicle driving and suspension systems the model based diagnostics can be

Health monitoring of bridges
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Monitoring 7 2.1 Bridge Management Philosophy 8 2.2 Structural HealthMonitoring 9 2.3 7.2 Deflection and Displacement Monitoring 7.3 Fatigue Assessment by Monitoring 7.4 Corrosion 551 Bridge, Bad Bevensen, Germany 9.13 The New Arsta Railway Bridge, Stockholm

Energy harvesting for structural health monitoring sensor networks
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Such a system is the most commonly used scheme for structural healthmonitoring studies. The schematic of the decentralized wireless monitoringsystem is shown in Fig. 2. DVS algorithms are typically implemented at the level of an operating system's scheduler.

Assessment of dynamic measurement accuracy of GPS in three directions
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software developed at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, the GPS HealthMonitoring Computer Program system (WGS84) was transformed into the motion simulation table coordinate system (X, Y, Z be seen that, without the filtering, GPS can satisfactorily track the sinusoidal

Condition assessment for bridge management
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2013. Monitoring of Railway Loading Effects. Structural HealthMonitoring of Long-Span Suspension Bridges. A Characterization of Traffic and Temperature Induced Strains Acquired Using a Bridge MonitoringSystem. Structures Congress 201189-100.

Railway point mechanisms: condition monitoring and fault detection
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were attempting to reduce the number of monitor- ing sensors required in a railway signalling system Rail and Rapid Transit mechanisms of high-speed vision systems similar to those described in reference [31] for the on-board monitoring of track surface, etc.

Safety monitoring of railway tunnel construction using FBG sensing technology
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Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail Mountain 12 Railwaytrack performance monitoring and safety warning system, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, ASCE, Vol. Fiber sensors for strain measurements and axle counting in high-speed railway applications,


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