RESEARCH PAPERS

submicron technology research papers




Accurate thermal noise model for deep-submicron CMOS
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Abstract Extensive measurements of drain current thermal noise are presented for 3 different CMOS technologies and for gate lengths ranging from Zum down to 0.17 um. Using a surface-potential-based compact MOS model with improved descriptions of carrier threatens the practical application of the traditional IDDQ test. This paper describes a new Delta IDDQ test technique which has proven effective at detect defection for deep Noise is a problem to analog IC designers because it presents a lower bound on the useful useful gain, ultimately saturating the amplifier if the gain is too high. The types of noise of Abstract. As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region- 2008 (CAREBeijing-2008), an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron

The APV25 deep submicron readout chip for CMS detectors
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Abstract The APV25 is a 128 channel analogue pipeline chip for readout of silicon microstrip detectors in the CMS tracker at the LHC. Each channel comprises a low noise amplifier, a 192 cell analogue pipeline and a deconvolution readout circuit. Output data are

Effects of gate depletion and boron penetration on matching of deep submicron CMOS transistors
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ABSTRACT This paper presents new insights into the mechanisms of gate depletion and boron penetration in deep submicron CMOS technologies. MOSFET matching measurements show that these effects are stochastic in nature, and are associ-ated with the gate poly-Si

Inhibition of photosynthesis in phytoplankton by the submicron size fraction concentrated from seawater
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ABSTRACT Ultraf~ ltration was used to concentrate the 2-200 nm size fractlon from seawater samples 100-to 1000-fold. Electron microscopy indicated that these concentrates were heavily enriched with virus-like particles. When aliquots from these concentrates

Transmission optical properties of polycrystalline alumina with submicron grains
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Translucent alumina ceramics have excellent character-istics of resistance to both heat and corrosion. They have been used for high-pressure discharge lamps for quite some time ). Many articles") have reported on the produc-tion method of the translucent alumina Using coarse grained models of heterogeneous vesicles we demonstrate the potential for small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to detect and distinguish between two different categories of lateral segregation: 1) unilamellar vesicles (ULV) containing a single domain

RF-distortion in deep-submicron CMOS technologies
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Abstract The distortion behaviour of MOSFETs is important for RF-applications. In this paper the inuence of technology varia-tions (oxide thickness, substrate doping,) on distortion is. investigated using measurements and a recently developed compact MOSFET model.

Bacterial degradation of protein adsorbed to model submicron particles in seawater
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Abstract We tested the hypothesls that proteln adsorbed to submlcron part~ cles In seawater IS more slowly degraded than the same proteln freely d~ ssolved Bacterial hydrolysis of methyl-3H-bov~ ne serum album~ n (3H-BS~) dlssolved or adsorbed to

Continuing experiments of atmospheric neutron effects on deep submicron integrated circuits
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Just as the Rosetta Stone enabled researchers to decode the unsolvable and mysterious Egyptian hieroglyphs by comparing them to the same text written in a known language, the Xilinx Rosetta experiments link two prior known and well-documented techniques of

Impact of agglomeration state of nano-and submicron sized gold particles on pulmonary inflammation
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ABSTRACT Background: Nanoparticle (NP) toxicity testing comes with many challenges. Characterization of the test substance is of crucial importance and in the case of NPs, agglomeration/aggregation state in physiological media needs to be considered. In this

Effective power and ground distribution scheme for deep submicron high speed VLSI circuits
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ABSTRACT This paper studies the power and ground distribution and its noise effect for deep submicron CMOS VLSI circuits. It is found that orders of magnitude reduction in switching noise can be achieved using an effective power and ground distribution scheme

The EKV 3.0 compact MOS transistor model: accounting for deep-submicron aspects
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ABSTRACT The EKV 3.0 compact MOS transistor model for advanced IC design is presented. Its basis is an ideal analytical charge-based model including static to non- quasistatic dynamic aspects and noise. The ideal model is extended to account for the

Chemical characterization and source apportionment of submicron (PM1) aerosol in Kanpur region, India
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ABSTRACT PM1 (particles having aerodynamic diameter lt; 1.0 m) concentrations were measured at a sampling site inside the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur campus

Noise generation and coupling mechanisms in deep-submicron ICs
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To improve system performance and maximize clock frequency, this path delay distribution paths have similar delays, and the gates along those paths switch almost simultaneously.

Characterizing substrate coupling in deep-submicron designs
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Background The naive but still common way to handle substrate coupling is costly trial and and relies heavily on the designer's expertise and experience, is not adequate in the face

Development of a radiation tolerant 2.0 V standard cell library using a commercial deepsubmicron CMOS technology for the LHC experiments
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K Kloukinas, F Faccio, A Marchioro Proc. of the fourth 1998 kkloukin.web.cern.ch ABSTRACT A standard cell library was developed using a commercial 0.24 m, 2.5 V CMOS technology. Radiation tolerant design techniques have been employed on the layout of the cells to achieve the total dose hardness levels required by LHC experiments. The library

Aerosol and NO x emission factors and submicron particle number size distributions in two road tunnels with different traffic regimes
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D Imhof, E Weingartner, ASH Pr v t Atmospheric 2006 atmos-chem-phys.net ABSTRACT. Measurements of aerosol particle number size distributions (18 700 nm), mass concentrations (PM2. 5 and PM10) and NOx were performed in the Plabutsch tunnel, Austria, and in the Kingsway tunnel, United Kingdom. These two tunnels show different

Reactive uptake coefficients for heterogeneous reaction of N 2 O 5 with submicron aerosols of NaCl and natural sea salt
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DJ Stewart, PT Griffiths, RA Cox Atmospheric Chemistry and 2004 atmos-chem-phys.net ABSTRACT. The kinetics of uptake of gaseous N2O5 on submicron aerosols containing NaCl and natural sea salt have been investigated in a flow reactor as a function of relative humidity (RH) in the range 30 80% at 295 2 K and a total pressure of 1bar. The

Electrodynamics of submicron dust in the cometary coma
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Summary. Electromagnetic forces derived from the solar wind elds act strongly on submicron dust grains in the cometary coma. The grain charge and thus the forces are sensitive to composition and cometary plasma conditions, as well as to grain size. For

FW Modeling Issues. of Deep-submicron MOSFETs for Circuit Design
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ABSTRACT in deep submicron transistors with transit frequencies in This issues in CMOS MOSFET modeling for radio frequency performance is attractive for HF circuit design in view (RF) applications. Beginning with a brief review of of a system-on-a-chip realization,

RF-noise of deep-submicron MOSFETS: Extraction and modeling
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ABSTRACT A method for the extraction of all four noise parameters of a MOSFET (channel noise, induced gate noise and complex correlation coefficient) based on a description of noise by means of correlation matrices is presented. For the first time values for the gate

BIST for deep submicron asic memories with high performance application
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Abstract Today's ASIC designs consist of more memory in terms of both area and number of instances. The shrinking of geometries has an even greater effect upon memories due to their tight layouts. These two trends are putting much greater demands upon memory BIST

Current-based testing for deep-submicron VLSIs
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depletion-layer capacitance, Cgox is the gate-oxide capacitance, k is Boltzmann's constant, T is the absolute temperature, and q represents the electronic charge. The NMOS

Focussed ion beam assisted three-dimensional rock imaging at submicron scale
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ABSTRACT Computation of effective flow properties of fluids in porous media based on three dimensional (3D) pore structure information has become more successful in the last few years, due to both improvements in the input data and the network models. Computed X-

3D simulation of deep-submicron devices: How impurity atoms affect conductance
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miniaturization. Yet technology continues to extend (actually, to contract) these limits to

Deposition of submicron aerosol particles during integrated circuit manufacturing: experiments
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Measurements of airborne concentrations and surface concentrations of submicron particles were made in two different semiconductor manufacturing cleanrooms. These measurements, made with an optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus counter,

IDDQ testing for deep-submicron ICs: challenges and solutions
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Figure 1 shows two kinds of shorts for CMOS circuits: intragate shorts and intergate shorts. external nodes of two logic gates. Intergate shorts, also called external bridging faults, are

Chemical characteristics of submicron particles in winter in Xi'an
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ZX Shen, JJ Cao, Z Tong, SX Liu, LSS Reddy Aerosol Air Qual. 2009 aaqr.org ABSTRACT Daily submicron aerosol samples (PM1, particles less than 1 m in diameter) were soluble ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, NO2-, NO3-and SO4 2-) and

The effect of logic block granularity on deep-submicron FPGA performance and density
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E Ahmed 2001 eecg.utoronto.ca Page 1. THE EFFECT OF LOGIC BLOCK GRANULARITY ON DEEP-SUBMICRON FPGA PERFORMANCE AND DENSITY by Elias Ahmed Page 2. ii Page 3. ABSTRACT The Effect of Logic Block Granularity on Deep-Submicron FPGA Performance and Density Elias Ahmed

Requirements for Practical I lt; sub gt; DDQ lt;/sub gt; Testing of Deep Submicron Circuits
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ABSTRACT This paper describes the requirements that quiescent current (IDDQ) testing must projections from the 1999 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, several

Single-crystal silicon HARPSS capacitive resonators with submicron gap-spacing
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ABSTRACT This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of single crystal silicon (SCS) in-plane capacitive resonators with submicron gap spacing using the HARPSS process. The resonating element is made out of single crystal silicon and the drive and

Optical behaviour of sol gel derived photonic structures formed by submicron silica spheres
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M Jasiorski, K Maruszewski Materials 2002 materialsscience.pwr.wroc.pl Sol gel synthesis of powders consisting of regularly shaped submicron silica spheres ( 400 600 nm) is described. IR and absorption spectra of such powders have been obtained. The IR spectra demonstrate that the silica spheres heated at 800 C are hydroxyl-free. The

Soft-Error Rate Testing of Deep-Submicron Integrated Circuits.
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ABSTRACT Soft errors induced by radiation pose a major challenge for the reliability of complex chips processed in state-of-the-art technologies. This paper reviews soft-error rate (SER) characterization by realtime system-SER testing and by accelerated testing. Additionally,

Analysis of diurnal and seasonal variation of submicron outdoor aerosol mass and size distribution in a northern Indian city and its correlation to black carbon
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ABSTRACT The seasonal and diurnal behavior of atmospheric submicron aerosol was studied in the northern Indian city of Kanpur in the Indo Gangetic Plain during July 2006 May 2007. The size distribution and mass concentration of the aerosol in the range of 15-

wavelength range of 350-600 nm through nonlinear-optical spectral transformation of femtosecond Cr: forsterite-laser pulses in submicron fused silica threads
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SO Konorov, AA Ivanov, MV Alfimov, AB Fedotov LASER PHYSICS- 2003 maik.ru ABSTRACT We experimentally demonstrate highly efficient generation of frequency-tunable radiation within the wavelength range of 350 600 nm through nonlinear-optical frequency conversion of femtosecond pulses of a Cr: forsterite laser in an array of submicron fused Abstract. Electrical forming and voltage current characteristics of Au polystyrene Au (MIM) structures created on a glassy substrate were studied. Polystyrene (PS) isolating films, 180

Analyzing sigma-delta ADCs in deep-submicron CMOS technologies
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Sigma-delta (S) analog-to-digital-converters are critical components in wireless transceivers. This study shows that a continuous-time, single-loop, single-bit S ADC is suitable for wireless applications demanding less than 5 MHz conversion bandwidth (

Understanding focus effects in submicron optical lithography: Part 3--methods for depth-of-focus improvement
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ABSTRACT In general, depth-of-focus (DOF) decreases as the square of the feature size. As the resolution of optical lithography has improved, with the potential to go below 0.25 m, the decrease in usable DOF has been significant. As such, there has been increasing effort

Submicron tip breakage and silanization control improve ion-selective microelectrodes
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Submicron tip breakage and silanization control improve ion-selective microelectrodes. Am. J. Physiol. 249

Deep-submicron CMOS warms up to high-speed logic
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L. Mmzriing/We. r/light ilicon bipolar de\ ices. purticulztrly those in emitterecoupled logic (ECL). have been accepted as the most useful of the various high-speed technologies since [Cs were rst introduced into computers. But the possibilities for improving F. CL will even

Deep submicron bus invert coding
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ABSTRACT In this paper we present a simplified model for deep submicron, on-chip, parallel data buses. Using this model a coding technique similar to Bus Invert Coding is presented, but with a better performance in the proposed model. The coding technique

Jumps between metastable states of the quasi-1D conductor TaS3 with submicrontransverse dimensions
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In a real quasi-1D conductor, the phase coherence of a space-charge wave is retained over a finite distance, usually much smaller than the dimensions of the samples which have been studied. 1 In orthorhombic TaS3, a typical quasi-1D conductor, the length of the phase-

Nano-or submicron-sized liposomes as carriers for drug delivery
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Liposomes are tiny spheres ranging in diameters from 50 nm to several microns. The scope of this mini review is to introduce the concept of liposomes and to describe some aspects and mechanisms of stimulating topical and injectable products with liposomes. Two

Design for manufacturing (DFM) in submicron VLSI design
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K Cao 2007 repository.tamu.edu As VLSI technology scales to 65nm and below, traditional communication between design and manufacturing becomes more and more inadequate. Gone are the days when designers simply pass the design GDSII file to the foundry and expect very good

Stereo light microscope calibration for 3D submicron vision
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G Danuser International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote 1996 isprs.org ABSTRACT The rapid development in micro-and nanotechnology has introduced new challenges to photogrammetry and computer vision. Microscopic imagery has to be seriously investigated by these communities. This paper represents a first step in this

High-performance pipeline A/D converter design in deep-submicron CMOS
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Y Chiu 2004 cc.ee.nchu.edu.tw The rapid evolution of the silicon integrated circuits (IC) during the last two decades has enabled the miniaturization of narrow-band mobile phones that can operate on batteries for reasonable lifetimes. The aggregation of the research results of the radio-frequency (RF)

Modeling the effect of wire resistance in deep submicron coupled interconnects for accurate crosstalk based net sorting
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C Guardiani, C Forzan Proceedings of the 1998 xputers.informatik.uni-kl.de ABSTRACT It is well known that in deep submicron technologies the coupling capacitance between adjacent wires is a critical portion of the total wire capacitance, while at the same time the capacitance between wire and substrate has become the fringing component.

Organic composition of single and submicron particles in different regions of western North America and the eastern Pacific during INTEX-B 2006
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ABSTRACT. Single particles were collected from an aircraft platform as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) conducted over the eastern Pacific and western North America. Single particle spectra were obtained using

Preparation and characterization of epoxy resins filled with submicron spherical zirconia particles
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Summary Submicron spherical zirconia particles were synthesized and used as a reinforcement for epoxy resins. In fact, recent developments indicate that a significant improvement in the thermoset polymer performance may be obtained by using submicron

Statistical leakage and timing optimization for submicron process variation
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ABSTRACT Leakage power is becoming a dominant contributor to the total power consumption and dual-Vth assignment is an efficient technique to decrease leakage power, for which effective design methods have been proposed. However, due to the exponential relation

Extended charges modeling for deep submicron CMOS
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ABSTRACT The simulation of deep submicron CMOS cir-cuits operating at high-frequency requires adequate models representing the dynamic behavior of the transistors. Charges in the device are affected by carrier quantization and polydepletion in the gate. Velocity

High concentration submicron particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering
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DYNAMIC LIGHT SCATTERING (DLS) is a well-established technique for measuring particle size over the size range of a few nanometers to a few microns; however, at high sample concentrations severe limitations are placed on the DLS measurement. This paper

2014 papers



Mountain Pine Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine for the Production of Submicron Lignocellulose Fibrils
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The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB)(Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer

Investigating the annual behaviour of submicron secondary inorganic and organic aerosols in London
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Abstract For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulate through an entire annual cycle is investigated using measurements from an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS) located at a UK

Inorganic salts interact with oxalic acid in submicron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility
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ABSTRACT. Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, di- carboxylic acids (DCA), and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures

Two years of near real-time chemical composition of submicron aerosols in the region of Paris using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSm) and a
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ABSTRACT Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements have been successfully used towards a better understanding of non-refractory submicron (PM1) aerosol chemical properties based on short-term campaign. The recently developed Aerosol Chemical

Depletion and Phase Transformation of a Submicron Ni (P) Film in the Early Stage of Soldering Reaction between Sn-Ag-Cu and Au/Pd (P)/Ni (P)/Cu
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The early stage of soldering reaction between Sn-3Ag-0.5 Cu solder and ultrathin-Ni (P)- type Au/Pd (P)/Ni (P)/Cu pad was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) in conjunction with field-emission electron probe microanalysis (

Energy Efficient Advanced Low Power CMOS Design to reduce power consumption in DeepSubmicron Technologies in CMOS Circuit for VLSI Design
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ABSTRACT Low power has emerged as a principal theme in today's electronic industry. Energy efficiency is one of the most critical features of modern electronic systems designed for high speed and portable applications. Reduction of power consumption makes a device more

Preparation and Characterization of SiO2 Nano/Submicron-Rods by Catalytic Pyrolysis of A Polymer Precursor
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Page 1. Preparation and Characterization of SiO2 Nano/Submicron-Rods by Catalytic Pyrolysis of A Polymer Precursor apengzhijian cugb.edu.cn; bxiulifu bupt.edu.cn Keywords: Silica; Nano/submicron-rod; Preceramic polymer; Pyrolysis ABSTRACT.

Interactive comment on Enhancements of the refractory submicron aerosol fraction in the Arctic polar vortex: feature or exception
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The paper sumarises well an important and interesting piece of work. Some gramatical corrections have been given by independent reviewers and I would support those changes. Understanding the refractory material in the stratosphere is of great importance to issues

Source Apportionment for Water Soluble Organic Matter of Submicron Aerosol: A Comparison between Foggy and Nonfoggy Episodes
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ABSTRACT An extensive filter-based ambient aerosol measurement was carried out at a region that is mostly affected by fog almost every winter. A few fogwater samples were also collected during the study period. Water soluble organic matter (WSOM) was extracted in

Characterisation of submicron size entrainment in the aqueous product stream of a 40 mm diameter centrifugal extractor for 30% tbp/nitric acid biphasic system
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Annular centrifugal extractor is a favoured solvent extraction contactor where process flowsheet requires a low hold up, lower residence times and compact layout. However during operation of annular centrifugal extractor, a small entrainment, generally of the

Processes at Multi-pulse Laser Embossing of Submicron Surface Structures.
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Three-dimensional micro-and nanostructuring of metal surfaces is requested due to the ongoing miniaturization and is therefore of great interest for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), micro-optics, and precision machining. One promising fabrication method for low

Metal Removal Efficiency in Deep Submicron Trenches by Wet Chemicals
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Stochastic Process Variation in Deep-Submicron CMOS
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The CMOS technology has dominated the mainstream silicon IC industry in the last few decades. As CMOS integrated circuits are moving into unprecedented operating frequencies and accomplishing unprecedented integration levels (Fig. 1.1), potential problems

The Casimir force and micro-electromechanical systems at submicron-scale separations
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This section will present some of the basic ideas of what has become known as the Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces. This theory was developed in the 1950s and 1960s and later appeared in textbook form [3]. A more detailed chapter 2 is included to make this

Neuro-fuzzy network approach for modeling submicron MOSFETs: application to MOSFET subcircuit simulation
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ABSTRACT A neuro-fuzzy network approach is developed to model the nonlinear behavior of submicron metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The proposed model is trained and implemented as a MOSFET in a software environment. The training

Analysis of Deep Submicron Device parameters Using T-Sizing
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ABSTRACT The variations that are seen in the semiconductor fabrication process causing changes in threshold voltage, oxide thickness, channel length, interconnect wire width, thickness, etc. is referred as process variation. Optimization of Complementary Metal

Comparative Analysis of Vedic Multiplier by Using Different Adder Logic Style at DeepSubmicron Technology
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ABSTRACT In the recent years growth of the portable electronic is forcing the designers to optimize the existing design for better performance. Multiplication is the most commonly used arithmetic operation in various applications like DSP processor, math processor and In an electronics circuit, a set of components named as modules or blocks are connected through 'wires' called as interconnects. Floorplanning and placement are used to reduce the total area, size, power, temperature and cost of any circuit design. Various computational

Algorithms for Dynamic Hardness Measurements by Scratch Testing in the Submicron and Nanometer Scale
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A technique for predicting the muon induced upset cross section in submicron MOS devices using proton tests and simulation
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Single-event upsets (SEUs) are a primary concern for radiation induced circuit failures in modern terrestrial applications. SEUs are caused when charged particles strike a transistor and generate enough charge to cause a change in the state of the device.[1] Muons are


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