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underwater sensor IEEE PAPER



Underwater sensor networking: Research challenges and potential applications
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Abstract This report summarizes our research directions in underwater sensor networks. We highlight potential applications to off-shore oilfields for seismic monitoring, equipment monitoring, and underwater robotics. We identify research directions in short-range

Battery lifetime estimation and optimization for underwater sensor networks
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Abstract Acoustic technology has been established as the exclusive technology that provides robust underwater communications for military and civilian applications. One particular civilian application of interest is the deployment of underwater acoustic sensor

Pressure Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks.
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Abstract:A SEA Swarm (Sensor Equipped Aquatic Swarm) is a sensor cloud that drifts with water currents and enables 4D (space and time) monitoring of local underwater events such as contaminants, marine life and intruders. The swarm is escorted at the surface by drifting

Analysis of aloha protocols for underwater acoustic sensor networks
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Abstract:In this paper, we present a study on Aloha and Slot-ted Aloha protocols for Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN). Such simple random access protocols allow sensor nodes to communicate in UWSN. We present a simple mathematical analysis as well as

A resilient routing algorithm for long-term applications in underwater sensor networks
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Abstract:Underwater sensor networks will find applications in oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation, and tactical surveillance. Underwater acoustic networking is the enabling

A small submarine robot for experiments in underwater sensor networks
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Abstract: This paper describes a small underwater robot designed for experiments with sensor-actuator networks. The robot is based on the mote platform, which is used extensively in the sensor networking community as an experimental testbed. The

Challenges: building scalable and distributed Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) for aquatic applications
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Abstract Large-scale Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is a novel networking paradigm to explore the uninhabited and complex oceans. However, the characteristics of UWSNs, such as huge propagation delay, floating node mobility, and limited acoustic link

A novel routing protocol providing good transmission reliability in underwater sensornetworks
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Abstract As the network communications technology developing, a new type of networks has appeared in the daily life which is named underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). UWSNs are a class of emerging networks that experience variable and high propagation delays

A low propagation delay multi-path routing protocol for underwater sensor networks
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Abstract The large-scale mobile Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is a useful networking paradigm to explore underwater environments. The characteristics of mobile UWSNs, such as low communication bandwidth, large propagation delay, and floating

An ultrasonic sensor based low-power acoustic modem for underwater communication inunderwater wireless sensor networks
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Applications of underwater sensor networks involve environmental monitoring, disaster prevention, and resource detection. As the importance of these applications has recently grown, underwater sensor networks made up of sensor nodes have to be further

Underwater laser sensor network: A new approach for broadband communication in the underwater
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Abstract: In this paper a new approach for the underwater sensor network based on the blue- green laser has been proposed. We describe the application of the underwater sensor network in the undersea exploration, and discuss the difficulties in the traditional the

Adaptive MAC protocol and acoustic modem for underwater sensor networks
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WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks), one of the most popular topics in wireless and mobile networking, is gaining much interest as an innovative technology in the near future. Especially in UW-ASN (UnderWater-Acoustic Sensor Network), there are many potential

Efficient implementation of elliptic curve cryptography on DSP for underwater sensor networks
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Abstract:As emerging sensor networks are normally deployed in the field and thus vulnerable to many types of attacks, it is critical to implement cryptographic algorithms in sensor nodes to provide security services. Public-key algorithms, such as RSA and Elliptic

Design and realization of sensor nodes for dense underwater wireless sensor networks
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Abstract: High cost and high power consumption of underwater acoustic modem have limited the applications and researches of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN). This paper presents a node architecture and its low-cost realization to deal with such

A distributed CDMA medium access control for underwater acoustic sensor networks
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Access Control (MAC) protocol tailored for UnderWater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UW- ASNs), is proposed. It is a transmitter-based Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) scheme that incorporates a novel closed-loop distributed algorithm to set the optimal transmit

Particle filtering approach to multistatic underwater sensor networks with left-right ambiguity.
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Abstract:target-receiver geometry with left/right ambiguity via particle filtering. The ambiguous contacts, as opposed to false alarms, are coherent in time in the sense that a tracker would generate two tracks:

An underwater positioning scheme for 3d acoustic sensor networks
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Abstract:We transform the 3D underwater positioning problem into its 2D counterpart via a projection technique that employs depth information available to underwater sensors. After showing that a non-degenerative projection preserves network localizability, we present a

Energy efficiency analysis of error correction techniques in underwater wireless sensornetworks
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Abstract Research in underwater acoustic networks has been developed rapidly to support large variety of applications such as mining equipment and environmental monitoring. As in terrestrial sensor networks; reliable data transport is demanded in underwater sensor

SUNSET: Simulation, emulation and real-life testing of underwater wireless sensor networks
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Abstract:The emerging demand for pervasive underwa-ter monitoring and control systems has stimulated research on network protocols for underwater acoustic sensor networks. Several solutions have been proposed in the last few years at the different layers of the

CORAL: miniature acoustic communication subsystem architecture for underwater wireless sensor networks
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Abstract:Conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are increasing in use; however, not all environments can support the typical wireless sensor model, which utilizes RF as a communication medium. Hostile sensing and communication environments, such as

Underwater sensor network using optical wireless communication
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Potential applications for distributed networks of sensors are numerous and varied. Concern for the environment is one of the driving forces behind extensive research into all aspects of sensor networks (communication protocols, energy harvesting, and microelectronic device

Demo abstract: Bringing sensor networks underwater with low-power acoustic communications
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Sensor networks are changing how data is collected in many applications on earth today. However, today's sensornets do not address the 71% of the earth's surface that is covered by water. Just as sensornets benefit environmental monitoring and industrial control on

Multi-channel mac protocols for underwater acoustic sensor networks
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Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is quite important to the performance of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Recently, much research work has been done on the design of new MAC protocols for UWSNs to improve throughput and energy efficiency [1][3]. All

Design and development of a software-defined underwater acoustic modem for sensornetworks for environmental and ecological research
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Abstract-This paper describes the design and successful development of an acoustic modem for potential use in underwater ecological sensor networks. The presentation includes theoretical study, design and development of both software and hardware,

Localization of Sensor Nodes in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Using Two Reference Points.
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Abstract:Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASN) is being actively researched for its broad spectrum of potential applications. Particularly, submarine or whale tracking can be greatly leveraged by UWASN. These applications require the positions of sensor nodes

On the Mutual Information of Sensor Networks in Underwater Wireless Communication: An Experimental Approach
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Abstract:In this paper, we analyze the mutual information of sensor networks in an underwater wireless communication system by placing the acoustic sensor nodes at different location in order to achieve optimum mutual information. The performances of

An Enhanced Dynamic Token Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
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Abstract-The properties of underwater acoustic channel are quite different from those of terrestrial wireless sensor networks. There are many challenges to design an efficient media access control (MAC) protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs). In

An architecture for ocean bottom underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASN)
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ABSTRACT Ocean bottom sensor nodes can be used for oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, and tactical surveillance applications. To make these applications viable, there is a need to enable underwater communications among

Underwater sensor network applications: A comprehensive survey
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There is no escaping fact that a huge amount of unexploited resources lies underwater which covers almost 70% of the Earth. Yet, the aquatic world has mainly been unaffected by the recent advances in the area of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and their pervasive

Analyzing multi-channel MAC protocols for underwater acoustic sensor networks
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Abstract The focus of this paper is on the multi-channel MAC protocols for underwater acoustic sensor networks. We model and analyze two generalized multi-channel MAC protocols: multi-channel access with Aloha on a dedicated control channel and multi-

Efficient communication protocols for underwater acoustic sensor networks
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1.1 Background Underwater sensor networks are envisioned to enable applications for oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, seismic monitoring, equipment monitoring, assisted navigation and tactical

Sensor fusion and map building for underwater navigation
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Abstract This paper describes a framework for underwater navigation by combining information from different sensors into a single scene description called" sensor map". It is shown that features extracted from such a description are more robust than those

Exploring architectural challenges in scalable underwater wireless sensor networks
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Abstract The use of sensor networks in aquatic environments has been quite limited, partially due to the harsh underwater environments and associated high system costs.

Underwater Sensor Networks for Water Quality Monitoring project progress report
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1. Background Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been growing rapidly in the past few years. Lots of research has been done on WSN communications, WSN power conservation, WSN routing algorithms, etc. However, most research mainly focuses on terrestrial sensor

Comparison of Underwater Laser Communication System with Underwater AcousticSensor Network
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Abstract In this paper approach for the underwater sensor network based on the blue-green laser has been proposed. We describe the application of the underwater sensor network in the undersea exploration, and discuss the difficulties in the traditional underwater sensor

Experimental validation of a real-time vision sensor and navigation system for intelligentunderwater vehicles
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Abstract This paper will present recent advances in the development of a vision sensor for automatic control of underwater robots. This research is a joint e ort between the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory ARL at Stanford University and the Monterey Bay Aquarium

Prevailing issues and research confront in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
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Abstract:The focal point of this paper examines a variety of approaches and the challenges in the design and the implementation on the research area of underwater acoustic sensor networks. Research in an Ocean is still unexplored boundary in this planet as compared

Energy efficient and reliable communication in underwater acoustic sensor networks
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Abstract:Normally, the communication in the earth surface is through electromagnetic or radio waves. But this is not possible in the underwater environments in an efficient way. In underwater environments radio does not work well due to its quick attenuation in water.

Lifetime Prolonging Algorithm for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network
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Abstract: This paper presents development of a lifetime prolonging algorithm for underwater sensor networks. The challenges faced in monitoring underwater scenarios is different the usual radio model for calculating the dissipation losses as well as the transmission losses

Analysis of Simulation Tools for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
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Abstract:Our earth is enclosed by 75% of water that could be a river or sea or ocean. The underwater sensor network becomes more and more conventional for monitoring huge areas of the oceans where manual intervention is not possible. Underwater sensor

Time Synchronization of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
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Large propagation delay and node movement are considered to be two significant attributes that differentiate an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) from a ground wireless sensor network (WSN). The acoustic-based media dramatically narrows the bandwidth of

Enhancing the Vector-Based Forwarding Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless SensorNetworks: A Clustering Approach
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Abstract:Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have an important role in different applications, such as offshore exploration and ocean monitoring. The networks consist of a considerably large number of sensor nodes deployed at different depths.

Underwater wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and design issues of the network layer-a review
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Abstract: Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) consists of variable number of sensor and vehicles that are deployed to perform concert monitoring tasks over a specified area in the ocean. To achieve this, sensors and vehicles self-standardized in an

Aqua-Sim: An NS-2 Based Simulator for Underwater Sensor Networks
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An NS-2 Based Simulator for UnderwaterSensor Networks Features of Aqua-Sim A standard up-to-date simulation platform is needed to

PBA: A new MAC mechanism for efficient wireless communication in underwater acousticsensor network
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Abstract:-There are considerable serious propagation delay rate and high error rate in case of data transmission in the poor and causal environment, such as underwater. Like this environment usually has heavy fluctuation of error rate and limited wireless

Towards specification, planning and sensor-based control of autonomous under water intervention
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Abstract: This paper presents our recent advances in specification, planning and control of autonomous manipulation actions in underwater environments. The user first specifies the target object found on a seabed image mosaic previously obtained.

ROV-3D, 3D Underwater Survey Combining Optical and Acoustic Sensor.
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Abstract ROV 3D project aims at developing innovative tools which link underwater photogrammetry and acoustic measurements from an active underwater sensor. The results will be 3D high resolution surveys of underwater sites. The new means and methods Abstract In the underwater environment, many visual sensors don't work, and many sensors which work well for robots working in space or on land can not be used underwater. Therefore, an optical fiber slide tactile sensor was designed based on the inner

targets with autonomous sensor networks
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Abstract This work describes an ongoing investigation at MIT into the use of a distributed network of autonomous sensor platforms to adaptively track, classify, and prosecute targets in littoral areas. The paper has two major objectives, to quantify the

Design of an active acoustic sensor system for an autonomous underwater vehicle
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Abstract Unstructured oceanic environments present great challenges to AUV navigation. However, with continual improvements in sensor technology, new methods of navigating

Design of a lateral-line sensor for an autonomous underwater vehicle
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Abstract: In an ongoing research project an autonomous underwater vehicle is to be built that will detect, localize, and avoid objects by means of a fully passive sensory system. Using hot-wire anemometry it measures local water velocities at the vehicle's hull and thus

target localization with acoustic range measurements
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Abstract: Worldwide, there is increasing interest in the operation of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to carry out scientific and commercial missions at sea. For some of the envisioned missions, it is crucial that new methods be developed to localize one

A Voronoi-Based Depth-Adjustment Scheme for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
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Abstract-Underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) is a special kind of wireless sensor network which is composed of a large quantity number of wireless sensor nodes deployed in the water. While there are extensive studies on deploy-issue of terrestrial wireless sensor

AUV-RM: underwater sensor network scheme for AUV based river monitoring
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Abstract. As over 70 percent of the earth's surface is covered by water, it is desirable to deploy underwater sensor networks to support river monitoring research applications. Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks use acoustic waves and are characterized by long

Multilevel power adjustment for underwater acoustic sensor networks
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Abstract Restricted to the limited battery power of nodes, energy conservation becomes a critical design issue in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UW-ASNs). Transmission with excess power not only reduces the lifetime of sensor nodes, but also introduces

Strategy of a novel System Architecture for Underwater Sensor Network
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Abstract: Only less than one third of earth's surface is covered by land, and the rest is covered by water. Due to several reasons such as vast area, high pressure, and harshness of underwater environment, human presence in this area is very limited. Hence, human

Underwater Sensor Networks for Water Quality Monitoring Project Final Report
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Abstract:Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been growing rapidly in the past few years. Lots of research has been done on WSN communications, WSN power conservation, WSN routing algorithms, etc. However, most research mainly focuses on terrestrial sensor

Performance Evaluation of FMMS using Underwater Sensor Network
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Abstract The radical growth in sensor network technology has paved way to many applications with socio economic implications. Development of new types of sensors for various parameters has increased the scope for data collection and has also lead to the

DEMO: Real-time control of an underwater sensor network using the SUNSET framework
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SET [1], which can be used to control the operations of submerged underwater devices in a real-time and online way using acoustic communications. SUNSET provides acoustic communication capability and a complete protocol stack to transmit acoustic commands

Electronics and Sensor Design of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
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Abstract Ongoing improvement in computer, sensor and battery technology allows constructing small and high efficient autonomous underwater vehicles. New technologies create possibilities, which were only a few years ago impossible. Underwater robotics

Performance Study of Positioning Structures for Underwater Sensor Networks
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Abstract-An impact study of the most relevant factors which influence the performance of general positioning structures in underwater sensor networks is conducted within this work. A major contribution of this work is the performance evaluation of four different positioning

Analysis of VBF protocol in Underwater Sensor Network for Static and Moving Nodes
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Abstract-Underwater acoustic sensor network is used to monitor the ocean areas with the help of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, wireless data access points like tools. A number of problems like environmental changes, predicting disaster informations, exploration of

EERCM: Energy Efficient and Reliable Communication Model for achieving QoS in Underwater Sensor Networks
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Abstract Pervasive Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) establish the communication in underwater for various applications such as natural exploration, surveillance, resource management etc. The Energy and Reliability are the prime factors to achieve effective

Distortion Performance of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
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The paper studies the distortion performance of multihop underwater acoustic sensor networks. The network is composed of bottom mounted sensor nodes and the sensor to sensor links experience Rician fading. The distortion is evaluated for the case when there

A Novel Positioning Technique for 3D Underwater Sensor Networks
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Abstract:Positioning or Localization, that is, determining the location of every sensor is important and the process aims to have the maximum percentage of localized nodes whether stationary or in motion. This paper elaborates the idea of mining applications in

Cluster protocols in underwater sensor networks: a research review
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Abstract Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) have different characteristics in relation to terrestrial wireless sensor networks; such as limited bandwidth capacity, high propagation delays and limited battery power. Although there has been much work

Dynamic cluster based routing for underwater wireless sensor networks
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During the last couple of decades Underwater Wireless Sensor networks (UWS) attracting more and more attention for ocean monitoring systems. Due to adverse environment, UWS face many problems like bandwidth limitations, high error probability,

Wireless Underwater Sensor Networks
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Abstract In the report a wireless sensor network for passive as well as active acoustic surveillance under water is described. A feasible use is surveillance of an area at sea like the entrance to a harbour or a base. With other sensors the network also has a civilian use

Simulating underwater sensor networks and routing algorithms in matlab
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This work is dedicated my family, friends, thesis committee, and the staff of the University of the Pacific School of Engineering and Computer Science. The endless support I've received from all parties allowed me to complete this and without their help I'd have given up long

A diaphragm-based pressure sensor packaged using liquid crystal polymer and silicone oil for underwater applications
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Abstract Reliable hermetic packaging of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensor arrays for underwater applications always presents a formidable challenge, which is further compounded by the unforgiving harsh sea environments, during the design,

The Hydroflown: MEMS-Based Underwater Acoustical Particle Velocoty Sensor, Results of lab tests and sea trials
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The Hydroflown is a novel very small acoustic vector sensor that is able to directly measure particle velocity. In contrast to pressure gradient techniques and accelerometers, this sensor has a good low frequency behavior and directionality. The recent developments are

Coverage Holes Recovery Algorithm Based on Nodes Balance Distance of UnderwaterWireless Sensor Network
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Abstract-Underwater wireless sensor network nodes deployment optimization problem is studied and underwater wireless sensor nodes deployment determines its capability and lifetime. Underwater wireless sensor network if no wireless sensor node is available in the

The Performance of Low-Light Level Television Cameras on Underwater Remote Controlled Vehicles and Towed Sensor Platforms
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Abstract This paper describes the viewing system design requirements for two somewhat dissimilar applications; namely, an underwater remote controlled vehicle and a towed sensor platform. The low light level television camera viewing systems evolved to satisfy

Optimal sensor placement for acoustic range-based underwater robot positioning
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Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of optimal sensor placement for acoustic range- target positioning. In particular, we focus on the experimental set-up target positioning is performed by measuring the ranges between the underwater

Modelling Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
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The study of Underwater Wireless Networks as a research field has grown significantly in recent years offering a multitude of proposal to resolve the communication between the nodes and protocols for information exchange networks. Acoustics has been used by

Sensor-based formation control of autonomous underwater vehicles
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Abstract:We address the subject of formation control of underwater vehicles, using either inter-vehicle relative position measurements or range-only measurements. The work is motivated by the MORPH project, aiming to use formations of vehicles with

Smart plankton-a new generation of underwater wireless sensor network.
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The aquatic world, which covers more than the 70% of the earth, has been largely unaffected by the WSN revolution (ignited by DARPA funded UC Berkeley Smart Dust project) due to the difficulty of transferring most of the knowhow, developed for terrestrial

Computer vision, sonar and sensor fusion for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) navigation
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Abstract Even though a lot of research has been devoted towards AUVs in the West, the developing Eastern nations like India lack programs for development of AUV technologies that would better position them to understand their oceans. As such, the Indian

Design of a Vision-Based Sensor of Position and Rate for the Guidance of AutonomousUnderwater Vehicles
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Abstract This paper is concerned with the design of a vision-based algorithm for on-line estimation of position and rate control errors in the guidance of autonomous underwater vehicles for path tracking of underwater lines. The algorithm uses techniques of pattern

Robust Online Adaptive Sensor-Driven Survey Planning for Single and Multiple AutonomousUnderwater Vehicles
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Abstract The objective of the thesis is to propose new survey planning methods for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Historical approaches to the problem usually involve preplanning paths before the start of the survey in a structured, either zig-zag or

underwater sensor network using pressure routing



Pressure Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks.
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by the fact that in our scenario communications are strictly vertical, from sensors to surface to periodically send their local coordinate information (for off-line localization) and sensor data to distance via Time of Arrival (ToA),, which is widely used in underwater networks , and

Underwater sensor networks: applications, advances and challenges
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Ocean Observatories Initiative is exploring large-scale cabled under water sensing . issues related to the design, analysis, implementation and testing of under water sensor networks. most communications systems, and have been considered for underwater networks as well

Data collection, storage, and retrieval with an underwater sensor network
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large area coverage with sparse networks which is especially important in an under- water environment a communication, and for 3D localization of the nodes in a sensor net- work. Transducers normally designed for air do not work well underwater due to the impedance

VAPR: void-aware pressure routing for underwater sensor networks
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In a SEA Swarm, each node is equipped with a variety of sensors and a route maintenance with neighboring nodes, which are very expensive operations underwater, and 2 NOH ET AL.: VAPR: VOID-AWARE PRESSUREROUTING FOR UNDERWATERSENSORNETWORKS

Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking
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a) Seismic monitoring: A promising application for under- water sensor networks is seismic monitoring for oil with combined TDMA and CDMA for a group of autonomous underwater vehicles In contrast, our sensor network model consists of hundreds to thousands of nodes, and

Routing algorithms for delay-insensitive and delay-sensitive applications in underwater sensor networks
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Thus, links in under- water networks are usually based on acoustic wireless communications [24]. topology be always connected, ie, at least one path from every sensor to the 3.2 Underwater Propagation Model The underwater transmission loss describes how the acoustic in

AUV-aided localization for underwater sensor networks
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Sonardyne [17] is such a commercial product that uses a vessel to scan the area of underwater sensors in shallow waters. AUV-aided localization with triangulation needs three messages for 2D. The sensor nodes learn their z-coordinate (depth) via pressure sensors.

A survey of practical issues in underwater networks
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The frequency-dependent attenuation of the under- water channel is different from the radio MAC protocols in mobile under water networks therefore need to be able to share the The most typical is through adaptive and collaborative sampling, where sensor data influences

A survey on routing techniques in underwater wireless sensor networks
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are not feasible due to unavailability of accurate synchronization in underwater (Jun-Hong Although underwater acoustic has been studied for decades, under water networking and routing protocols are For this, state information of the sensor nodes is not required since only a

The challenges of building mobile underwater wireless networks for aquatic applications
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The examples for the second category are under- water natural resource discovery, hurricane disaster The common GPS-free approach used in many ground-based sensor networks of measuring the time Moreover, the underwater environment, with the motion of water and the

Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks
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Fig. 3. Noise intensity spectral densities for different environments in air and underwater. These are physical layer techniques to achieve point-to-point communication among sensor nodes. 4.1. We next discuss various approaches that have been used in underwater ACOMM.

Wireless sensor network survey
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The challenges of deploying sensors in an underwater environment were some key lessons from The node-level sensing algorithm relays the sensor data from each sensor and Wireless sensor applications using IEEE 802.15.4 include residential, industrial, and environment

A survey of architectures and localization techniques for underwater acoustic sensor networks
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a recent study provides a different perspective on the use of RF signals underwater [26 the AAL scheme for a hybrid, three dimensional UASN where the under water sensor nodes are During one cycle of operation in underwater, it broadcasts wake-up messages from different

The design space of wireless sensor networks
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tionally more powerful compute nodes may col- lect, process, and route sensory data from many more limited sensing nodes; some Sound or ultrasound is typically used for communication under water or to measure distances basedon time-of-flight mea sensornetwork may

Building underwater ad-hoc networks and sensor networks for large scale real-time aquatic applications
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Such attacks can dis- rupt or even disable ad hoc networks and sensor networks independent of wormhole at- tack [10] and its variants impose great threat to under- water acoustic communication. and simulation study we know that this is no longer true in underwater networks. These sensing and sleeping intervals can be scheduled according to the situations and requirements of the Bing Wang, Jun-Hong Cui, Dario Maggiorini, Gian Paolo Rossi, Adaptive Routing in Underwater Delay/Disruption Tolerant SensorNetworks, Wireless on

Energy analysis of routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks
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Sonar (Sound Navigation and Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation underwater. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) of an emitted underwater signal at the receiver can be of the receiver's directional sensitivity or the ability of the sonar system (sensor node) to direct

AquaNodes: an underwater sensor network
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We now describe the second generation under water sensor network that has retained the original goals addressing them with a different design and enhanced capabilities. An underwater sensor networkwith dual communications, sensing, and mobility.

A resilient routing algorithm for long-term applications in underwater sensor networks
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Link protection schemes are not suitable for the underwater environment as they are too bandwidth We considered 50 sensors randomly deployed in a 3D volume of 500x500x50m3, which may represent a rate = 1/2 year-1 to capture the reliability of each sensor node (in


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