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virtual' and 'reality'. The definition of 'virtual' is near and reality is what we experience as human beings. So the term 'virtual reality' basically means 'near-reality'. This could, of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality literally makes it possible to experience anything, anywhere, anytime. It is the most immersive type of reality technology and can convince the human brain that it is somewhere it is really not. Head mounted displays are used with headphones and hand controllers to provide a fully immersive experience.

Virtual reality technology
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We are speaking about a technology that uses computerized clothing to synthesize shared reality. It recreates our relationship with the physical world in a new plane, no more, no less. It doesnt affect the subjective world; it doesnt have anything to do directly with whats going

Glimpses of heaven, visions of hell: Virtual reality and its implications
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Written for the non technical reader who wants to keep up with the latest developments the book identifies the positive and negative aspects of virtual reality and the psychological moral social criminal political religious economic and legal implications that will arise from

Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following September 11, 2001.
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Objective: This preliminary study endeavored to evaluate the use of virtual reality (VR) enhanced exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consequent to the World Trade Center attacks of September 11, 2001. Method: Participants

Virtual reality for the treatment of autism
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Abstract. Autism is a mental disorder which has received attention in several unrelated studies using virtual reality . One of the first attempts was to diagnose children with special needs at Tokyo University using a sandbox playing technique. Although operating the

Virtual realitybased post-stroke hand rehabilitation
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Abstract. A VR-based system using a CyberGlove and a Rutgers Master II-ND haptic glove was used to rehabilitate four post-stroke patients in the chronic phase. Each patient had to perform a variety of VR exercises to reduce impairments in their finger range of motion,

Narrative as virtual reality
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Few of us have actually donned an HMD (head-mounted display) and DGs (data gloves), and none has entered the digital wonderland dangled before our eyes by the early developers of virtual reality : a computer-generated three-dimensional landscape in which

Evaluation of collision detection methods for virtual reality fly-throughs
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Abstract We consider the problem of preprocessing a scene of polyhedral models in order to perform collision detection very e ciently for an object that moves amongst obstacles. This problem is of central importance in virtual reality applications, where it is necessary to check

Max-a multimodal assistant in virtual reality construction.
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Virtual humanoid agents offer an exciting potential for interactive applications in Virtual Reality (VR). Cohabiting the environment with the human user, such agents may serve as communication partners that show the user around, present and explain the virtual world, or

Virtual reality
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Language tends to be seen primarily as a device for reporting on the nature of the world around us. This view engenders the default assumption that linguistic expressions normally refer directly to actual individuals and actual relationships in which they participate. But to

Keynote address: haptics feedback for virtual reality
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Haptic feedback is a crucial sensorial modality in virtual reality interactions. Haptics means both force feedback (simulating object hardness, weight, and inertia) and tactile feedback (simulating surface contact geometry, smoothness, slippage, and temperature). Providing

Virtual reality rehabilitation for all: Vivid GX versus Sony PlayStation II EyeToy
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ABSTRACT The main objective of this paper was to investigate the potential of the Sony PlayStation II EyeToy (www. EyeToy. com) for use in during the rehabilitation of elderly people with disabilities. This system is a projected, video-capture system which was

The flexible pointer: An interaction technique for selection in augmented and virtual reality
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ABSTRACT We present a virtual flexible pointer that allows a user in a 3D environment to point more easily to fully or partially obscured objects, and to indicate objects to other users more clearly. The flexible pointer can also reduce the need for disambiguation and can

Virtual reality in neurorehabilitation
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Imagine the following scenario. Stuck in traffic, you have your digital agent make contact with the secretary at the Rehabilitation Center via your wireless palmtop. You are immediately provided with a verbal listing of your daily schedule. It is clear that you will have a tight

The investigation and application of virtual reality as an educational tool
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Abstract Many studies have shown that students learn best when a variety of teaching methods are used, and that different students respond best to different methods. To this end, computers are being used more and more as teaching tools, to provide students with a wider

Virtual reality : in the mind of the beholder
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THE ELEMENTS Interaction is the process of inputting data to the system and receiving data from it. The 3D graphics, a form of computer output, let users see the virtual environment. Immersion refers to the users feeling of presence in the virtual world. An immersive

Virtual reality surgical laparoscopic simulators
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Methods Eight companies, all renown firms in the field of hardware and/or software laparoscopic virtual reality system development, were asked to participate in the study. All companies were sent a similar, open-ended questionnaire asking for a description of their

The potential of virtual reality for rehabilitation
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Todays clinician is privileged to have access to a variety of technologies that provide tools for both research and clinical intervention. The papers in this issue illustrate some of the ways in which technology improves therapy and enhances evaluation. We learn how

Authoring 3D hypermedia for wearable augmented and virtual reality
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Abstract Most existing authoring systems for wearable augmented and virtual reality experiences concentrate on creating separate media objects and embedding them within the users surroundings. In contrast, designing narrative multimedia experiences for such

NeuroVR 2-A free virtual reality platform for the assessment and treatment in behavioral health care.
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Abstract. At MMVR 2007 we presented NeuroVR (http://www. neurovr. org) a free virtual reality platform based on open-source software. The software allows non-expert users to adapt the content of 14 pre-designed virtual environments to the specific needs of the

WebVR web virtual reality engine based on P2P network
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Abstract: WebVR, a multi-user online virtual reality engine, is introduced. The main contributions are mapping the geographical space and virtual space to the P2P overlay network space, and dividing the three spaces by quad-tree method. The geocoding is

Virtual reality and psychotherapy.
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Abstract Virtual Reality (VR) is a new technology consisting on a graphic environment in which the user, not only has the feeling of being physically present in a virtual world, but he/she can interact with it. The first VR workstations were designed for big companies in

Using virtual reality for developing design communication
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Abstract: This paper explores the possibilities of using a Virtual Reality for cooperative idea generation and then attempts to assess the relationship between a students cooperation and the design process, learning experiences and the pedagogy employed by the teacher.

Current uses of virtual reality for children with disabilities
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Abstract. Technological advances, including the use of virtual reality have contributed enormously to improving the treatment, training, and quality of life of children with disabilities. This paper describes the advantages of VR for children with disabilities, how VR

Using virtual reality technology to convey abstract scientific concepts
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C Dede, M Salzman, RB Loftin of the 21st 1997 mstu-commons.wikischolars The simple fact is that the world of sensory experience is not Newtonian. More than a little research shows that children and adults learn many things about the physical world through their experience, but do not learn about Newtons Laws. In a deep sense, physics is not

Virtual Reality : Directions of Growth Notes from the SIGGRAPH90 Panel
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Virtual reality (VR) systems were introduced to the general public by VPL and by Autodesk on June 6, 1989, VR Day, at two trade shows. This event was preceded by about four months of media coverage. Since then, VR has captured the publics imagination. It is also in

Sound design to enhance presence in photorealistic virtual reality
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Although it is well known that sound enhances the sense of pres- ence, ie, the sense of being in a specific place, quantitative results on sound quality and quantity and specific sound design patterns for virtual reality and immersion are not yet available. Presence research is a topic which

3d Mars: Immersive Virtual Reality for Content-Based Image Retrieval.
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ABSTRACT 3D MARS is an interactive visualization system for Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). In 3D MARS, the user browses and queries images in an immersive 3D Virtual Reality space of CAVE. The results of the query are displayed in 3D, so that the user

Virtual reality for posttraumatic stress disorder and stress inoculation training
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Many have heard the term shell shock in the context of soldiers returning from war. However, this condition can affect anyone who has experienced a traumatic event such as serious injury or threat of injury or death. Its technical name is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Postural adaptation in elderly patients with instability and risk of falling after balance training using a virtual reality system
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Abstract: Our aim in this study was to assess postural control adaptation quantitatively in unsteady elderly patients at risk of falls in open spaces and given balance training with a virtualreality system reproducing environmental stimulation. Using a balance rehabilitation

What is the value of virtual reality for conceptual learning Towards a theoretical framework
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Abstract There is little principled empirical work that has been carried out on the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Environments for educational purposes. We briefly review recent work, and propose a theoretical framework for research into the relationship between

A literature review on immersive virtual reality in education: state of the art and perspectives
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Abstract: Since the first time the term Virtual Reality (VR) has been used back in the 60s, VR has evolved in different manners becoming more and more similar to the real world. Two different kinds of VR can be identified: non-immersive and immersive. The former is a

Combat related post traumatic stress disorder: a multiple case report using virtual reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring
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Abstract. The current report summarizes case studies from an Ofce of Naval Research (ONR) funded project to compare the effects of Virtual Reality Graded Exposure Therapy (VRGET) with a treatment as usual control condition in active duty Navy Corpsman, Navy Page 1. DESIGNING VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS THE STRUCTURED APPROACH GERARD JOUNGHYUN KIM CD-ROM Included Page 2. Designing Virtual Reality Systems Page 3. Gerard Jounghyun Kim Designing Virtual Reality Systems The Structured Approach With 191 Figures Page

Virtual realitybased experiential cognitive treatment of obesity and binge-eating disorders
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Abstract. This paper describes the characteristics and preliminary evaluation of the Experiential Cognitive Therapy (Experiential CT), a VR based treatment to be used in obesity and binge-eating disorders assessment and treatment. Experiential CT is a Virtual reality (VR) technology has undergone a transition in the past few years that has taken it from the realm of expensive toy into that of functional technology. After a period of inflated expectations and limited delivery in the early 90s, this form of computerbased

Immersive interactive virtual reality and informal education
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Abstract. Research in conceptual learning and virtual reality is a relatively young field, but growing rapidly. The increasing development of virtual reality (VR) technologies has matured enough as to expand research from the military and scientific visualization realm

Virtual reality in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders
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Abstract. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder characterized by 6 months of excessive anxiety and worry about a variety of events and situations. Anxiety and worry are often accompanied by additional symptoms like restlessness, being easily

Fast production of virtual reality city models
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ABSTRACT Virtual reality applications in the context of urban planning presume the acquisition of 3D urban models. Photo realism can only be achieved if the geometry of buildings is represented by a detailed and accurate CAD model and if artificial texture or real

Virtual reality in rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury
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ABSTRACT The potential use of virtual reality (VR) in neurological rehabilitation has frequently been discussed. This paper relates current thinking on the subject to the clinically defined concepts of impairment, disability and handicap. It is concluded that VR has a

Virtual reality and 3D visualizations in heart surgery education
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ABSTRACT Background: Computer assisted teaching plays an increasing role in surgical education. The presented paper describes the development of virtual reality (VR) and 3D visualizations for educational purposes concerning aortocoronary bypass grafting and their

A desktop virtual reality earth motion system in astronomy education
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ABSTRACT In this study, a desktop virtual reality earth motion system (DVREMS) is designed and developed to be applied in the classroom. The system is implemented to assist elementary school students to clarify earth motion concepts using virtual reality

The effects of fully immersive virtual reality on the learning of physical tasks
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Abstract Fully immersive virtual settings are different from traditional virtual reality settings in that they are able to capture full body motion. This ability allows people to use their full range of physical motion to interact with other avatars, computer controlled agents, and objects in

The virtual reality modeling language
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Page 1 of 32 VRML 1.0 C Specification 1 http://www. web3d. org/VRML1. 0/vrml10c. html The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a language for describing multi- participant interactive simulations--virtual worlds networked via the global Internet and hyper-

Using virtual reality environments to aid spatial awareness in disabled children
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ABSTRACT Several spatial tasks were presented to subjects in computer simulated environments to ascertain whether spatial skills could be trained and enhanced using this medium. Studies carried out at Leicester University have demonstrated that exploration of a

Treatment of acrophobia in virtual reality : A pilot study
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According to the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1995), simple phobias consist of persistent fear of a circumscribed stimulus and consequent avoidance of that stimulus, where the person having this fear knows it is excessive or unreasonable. If the feared

Design of the immersivetouch: a high-performance haptic augmented virtual reality system
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Abstract ImmersiveTouch is the next generation of augmented virtual reality technology, being the first system that integrates a haptic device, with a head and hand tracking system, and a high-resolution and high-pixel-density stereoscopic display. Its ergonomic design

An investigation into factors influencing immersion in interactive virtual reality environments
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Abstract: Two interactive virtual reality environments were used to identify factors that may affect, or be affected by, the degree of immersion in a virtual world. In particular, the level of stress in a swimming with dolphins simulation is measured, as is the degree of simulator

Immersive interactive virtual reality in the museum
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Abstract. The use of immersive Virtual Reality (VR) technology is a relatively recent trend enjoyed almost exclusively by the academic, military, and industrial research and development communities. However, as VR technologies mature, research is expanding

MSVT: A virtual realitybased multimodal scientific visualization tool
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ABSTRACT Recent approaches to providing users with more natural methods of interacting with virtual environment applications have shown that more than one mode of input can be both beneficial and intuitive as a communication medium between humans and computer

Employing virtual reality for aiding the organisation of autistic children behaviour in everyday tasks
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ABSTRACT This paper documents part of a research project under the title: Computer- Assisted Education and Communication of Individuals with Autistic Syndrome , which aims at designing and developing computer-based environments for aiding the education and

Overview of virtual reality technologies
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ABSTRACT The promise of being able to be inside another world might be resolved by Virtual Reality . It wouldnt be naïve to assume that we will be able to enter and completely feel another world at some point in the future; be able to interact with knowledge and

Virtual reality in anaesthesia
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Virtual reality has captured the public imagination and is the subject of some interest in the media. Considerable claims have been made for the potential benefits that it offers and the changes that it may effect. In addition to the well publicized applications in the entertainment

A critique of virtual reality in the architectural design process
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ABSTRACT An addition to a building was designed using virtual reality (VR). The project was part of a design studio for graduate students of architecture. During the design process a detailed journal of activities was kept. In addition, the design implemented with VR was

Virtual reality applications in the UKs construction industry
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ABSTRACT: A survey has been conducted to investigate the use of Virtual Reality and its applications within the construction industry in the UK. It surveyed the general perception of the new technology and its potential in improving design and construction processes as

Virtual reality exposure for phobias: A critical review
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The DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) defines a specific phobia as an unjustified, lasting and intense fear that occurs in the presence of or with the anticipation of an object or specific situation. Exposure to the phobogenic stimulus provokes an immediate

Nervous system correlates of virtual reality experience
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ABSTRACT In recent years several papers have been published in which the effect of exposure to virtual reality (VR) on the activity of the nervous system have been discussed. This area of knowledge is of importance to those interested in VR applications, and

Virtual reality in stroke rehabilitation with the assistance of haptics and telemedicine
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ABSTRACT A 3D-computer game was used as a training utility to promote motor relearning on a telemedicine platform in a laboratory setting. The subject suffered from a left arm paresis. He was evaluated before and after treatment with a specific hand function task, a

Colonizing virtual reality : construction of the discourse of virtual reality
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New technologies do not appear from nowhere as a mystical spark of inspiration from the mind of one individual. Nor are they inevitably accepted for their self-evident benefits. A technology emerges through a process involving broader cultural, linguistic, institutional and

Spatial mechanism design in virtual reality with networking
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Mechanisms are used in many devices to move a rigid body through a finite sequence of prescribed locations. The most commonly used mechanisms are four-bar planar mechanisms that move an object in one plane in space. Spatial mechanisms allow motion in

Virtual realitybased system for ankle rehabilitation post stroke
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Abstract The Rutgers Ankle is a compact Stewart-platform type robot used in ankle rehabilitation. It can measure displacements and apply forces/torques in six degrees of freedom. Two rehabilitation simulations resembling video games have been developed.
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