RESEARCH PAPERS

wireless communication research papers 2013




Improvement of Transmission Bandwidth for Indoor Optical Wireless CommunicationSystems Using an Elliptical Lambertian Beam
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Lambertian beam (ELB) model to achieve a higher transmission bandwidth than the conventional circular Lambertian beam (CLB) model for indoor optical wireless communication (OWC) systems. ELB is generated by employing a Mo× No light shaping 

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK
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ABSTRACT Ad hoc wireless internet refers to any set of networks where all devices have equal status on a network and free to associate with any other ad hoc network device in link range. The ad hoc wireless internet extends the services of the internet to the end users 

A High Performance CMOS Cascode Mixer For Application to Wireless MaritimeCommunication System
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Recently, natural disaster such as tsunami has been increasing world wide due to climate change and environmental pollution. For this reason, many research groups have been developing the early warning and monitoring systems to prevent a serious damage from the natural 

Battery-free Green Energy Sensor Applied in Wireless Communication Network
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ABSTRACT Structure of wireless sensor powered by energy harvester was given and analyzed. Low power Wireless Sensor Network with energy self-harvester has advanced property being safer, more comfortable, energy efficient and environmental friend. Function of 

Human–Robot Coordination Using Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT To aid people working in hazardous situations such as defense, military and for those pursuing research, a robot based on replication technique capable of performing any task and which can be controlled via wireless link is proposed in this paper. These robots 

Exploring Potential of indoor ir optical wireless communication for 4th generation heterogeneous networks
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ABSTRACT Infrared communications were mainly studied during 1960's as an alternative for mobile radio communications. But, no real system for indoor coverage using infrared links was seriously considered. Recently, infrared has gained ground with operators seeking to 

Diversity Combining Techniques under Employment of Generalized Receiver in Wireless Communication Systems with Rayleigh Fading Channel
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The bit error rate (BER) performance of wireless communication system employing the generalized receiver (GR) under the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation over Rayleigh fading channel with three common diversity combining techniques, namely, the 

Wireless Communication System
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ABSTRACT In this study, a comprehensive MATLAB simulation based study has been made for the performance evaluation study of a FEC encoded Multi Carrier (MC)-CDMA wireless communication system. The investigated system implements different channel 

FPGA Based Design of Direct Form FIR Polyphase Interpolator for Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT In this paper an Interpolator has been designed and simulated by using Direct Form Polyphase Serial and Parallel structures to reduce area and to enhance speed. Interpolator is particularly useful for smoothing signals such as sinusoids or baseband I/Q 

A Cooperative Diversity Technique Using Precoding for OFDMA System in Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT Cooperative communication has been broadly investigated to improve performance of wireless communication. But, most of the conventional cooperative techniques have a common problem of decreased transmission rate because the 

Scientometric Analysis of India's Research Output on Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT The present study examines the research output in wireless communication contributed by the Indian scientists during 2001–2012 as reflected in the SCOPUS database. A total of 1128 records are retrieved and exported to the MS-Excel. Then the 

Comparison of Various Short Range Wireless Communication Technologies with NFC
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ABSTRACT In this research paper we review three promising short-range wireless communication such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Bluetooth, zigbee and Near- field Communication (NFC). NFC mobile services are an important emerging area for NFC 

Impact of Antenna and Propagation on Wireless Communication Technology: Terminal, Base Station, and Channel Modeling
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For wireless communications, the antennas at both sides of the wireless chain and the corresponding propagation characteristics play an important role in the system design and optimization. In past standardization activities, eg, in 3GPP LTE/LTE-Advanced and IEEE 

Evolution of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks-1G to 5G as well as Future Prospective of Next Generation Communication Network
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ABSTRACT Mobile communication systems revolutionized the way people communicate. Evolution of wireless access technologies is about to reach its fourth generation (4G) and the 5G mobile networks will focus on the development of the user terminals where the 

Multilayer Slit Loaded Gap coupled Orthogonal Shorting Post Microstrip Antenna for L-Band Pervasive Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT In this paper, a three layer Small single feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with slit and two perpendicular shorting posts, is presented. Wide band frequency of operation demonstrated by single geometry, for broadening the bandwidth gap-coupled 

Evaluation of Wireless Communication Performance in a Li-ion Battery System
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ABSTRACT Communication performance of a wireless Li (lithium)-ion battery system was evaluated. The evaluation results showed that in the metal chassis storing the battery modules, the reliability of wireless communication is degraded under the influence of 

Wireless Communication with Multiple Antennas
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Multipath propagation has historically been regarded as an impairment because it causes signal fading. Information theory has shown that with multipath propagation, multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver can establish essentially multiple parallel 

Design, Development and Integration.. of a Wireless Communication.. Unit in the Concept Car
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ABSTRACT The Concept Car is an experimental embedded system with the objective of testing and verifying modern future car features by deploying different classes of applications. It is a research platform that by the time, has only been controlled and driven by a radio 

Computer Wireless Networking and Communication
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ABSTRACT This paper presents an overview of wireless networking with emphasis on the most popular standards: Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, and Cellular Networks. A review of what is needed to build a generic wireless network is provided. The literature attempts to discuss 

Cell Coverage Evaluation for LTE and WiMAX in Wireless Communication System
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ABSTRACT In this paper, we have evaluated the cell coverage area for LTE and WiMAX technology theoretically for different frequencies and environments in wireless communication systems. The evaluation was done based on the propagation model- 

Improving the Spectral Efficiency and Data Rate of FHCDMA Scheme for Wireless Communication Channels
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ABSTRACT In this project, we propose a two-level frequencyhopping code-division multiple- access (FH-CDMA) scheme for wireless communication systems. In our two-level FH-CDMA scheme, the available transmission bandwidth is divided into h frequency bands with. 

Optical Wired/Wireless Communication Using Soliton Optical Tweezers
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ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to generate nano optical tweezers to be connected to an optical quantum signal processing system in order to transmit quantum photon via an optical communication link. A system of microring resonator (MRR) known as Half-Panda is 

ANALYSIS OF SPACE-TIME BLOCK CODED SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
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ABSTRACT In this paper analytic and experimental result on space-time block codes (STBCs) of various diversity orders including an assessment of its result by means of computer simulation are illustrated. STBCs originally introduced by Alamouti, have 

Secured Wireless Communication Through Simulated Annealing Guided Triangularized Encryption By Multilayer Perceptron Generated Session Key (SATMLP)
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ABSTRACT In this paper, simulated annealing guided traingularized encryption using multilayer perceptron generated session key (SATMLP) has been proposed for secured wireless communication. Both sender and receiver station uses identical multilayer 

DUAL POLARIZED ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
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ABSTRACT This paper presents the design of antenna operating in ISM band at 2.4 GHz. It is designed for dual polarization application. This antenna consists of a square patch with an inserted plus slot is at centre, Dual probe feed and a ground plane. The antenna will 

An Integrated Wireless Communication System for Remote Pastoral Areas in Tibet
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ABSTRACT To support mobile communications in remote pastoral areas of Tibet effectively, this paper proposes an integrated wireless communication system including mobile ad hoc network (MANET), wireless senor network (WSN), cellular network and Beidou satellite network. 

mean square (LMS) equalization technique over reed-solomon encoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based wireless communication 
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Due to high data rate transmission capability with high bandwidth efficiency and robustness to multipath delay, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has recently been applied in wireless communication systems. Fading is the one of the major aspect which is 

User's Profile Replication Tree and On Demand Replica Update in Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT Replication strategy is mostly useful for replicating the called mobile user's profile at selected locations where some caller mobile users have higher calling rate. It plays important role in personal communication services (PCS) in order to reduce call setup cost 

Li-Fi (Light Fidelity)-A New Paradigm in Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT The first word that comes to your mind when you read the title is Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity), most of us are familiar to this, it uses 2.4-5 GHz RF (radio frequency) to deliver internet access around a wide area. Whenever you are using internet over a wireless 

UWB Antenna with Dual Stop Band Notch for Wireless Communication
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(Operating in broad frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz) based dual notch WLAN notch has shown great achievement for high-speed wireless communications. To satisfy the UWB system requirements, a band pass filter with a broad pass band width, low insertion loss, 

Performance Comparison of Adaptive and Blind Equalization Algorithms for Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT -Adaptive equalization is a well known method to minimize the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) in wireless communication. Often, adaptive algorithm requires transmission of known training sequence to track the time varying characteristics of the channel and 

Towards the benchmarking of ultra-low latency communication protocols for wirelesssensor and actuator networks
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ABSTRACT Novel protocols that can enable ultra-low latency communication in wireless multihop sensor and actuator networks have recently been presented in the literature. These approaches achieve ultra-low latencies in packet delivery notwithstanding the unreliability 

Design and Analysis of Circular Slotted MSA for Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT This paper proposes slotted microstrip patch antenna using single band frequency with a circular slot. The single operating frequencies increases with decreasing circular slot dimensions and single frequency operation with a reduced antenna size can be obtained. 

Design and Analysis of Anfilplexer Multifunction Circuit for 4G Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT in this paper, new design multifunction circuit, a compact microstrip antenna, microstrip filter, and microstrip diplexer (Anfilplexer) have been proposed and presented. The presented Anfilplexer structures are mounted on FR4-substrate, and the simulation 

MATLAB as a design and verification tool for the hardware prototyping of wireless communication systems
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The ability to verify the capacity gains of novel signal processing techniques or the performance of new communication standards is one of the main research and development drivers of both academic and industrial entities. In this context, the signal processing 

Magnetic Resonant Coupling Based Wireless Power Transfer System with In-BandCommunication
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ABSTRACT This paper presents a design of a wireless power transfer system based on magnetic resonant coupling technology with in-band wireless communication. To increase the transmission distance and compensate for the change in the effective capacitance due 

Design and Simulation of 4× 1 Corporate Feed Circular Microstrip Patch Array Antennas forWireless Communication
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ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to analysis the results obtained from the design and simulation of an array of circular microstrip patch elements. 4× 1 corporate feed circular microstrip patch array antennas have been designed for three different dielectric constants 

A Design of Short Range Wireless Communication Module Based on nRF24L01
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With the rapid development of network and communication technologies, the growing demand for wireless communications leads to many wireless communication protocol. The short distance wireless communication technology has three major characteristics and advantages: low 

Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Metamaterial for Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT In this paper, a Symmetrical Rectangular Cut Shaped Structure has been chosen to construct the metamaterial substrate due to the ability of constructing this shape, this structure produces a better performance compared to the other shapes. The 

Application of Bluetooth in Wireless Communication of CNC Manufacturing
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Introduction In CNC manufacturing, there ane two categories for data transmission: wired data connection and wireless data transmission[1]. It's the most common way of wired data connection that the star structure based on RS-232 serial port multiport serial card(Fig.1). This way is 

Multidimensional Optimization-Based Heuristics Applied to Wireless CommunicationSystems
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In the last two decades, the mobile communications technologies and the Internet have grown almost exponentially, reaching a significant numbers of subscribers around the world. The mobile cellular service got a very large growth of users along with the increase of 

EFFICIENCY AND SECURITY ANALYSIS IN MULTI-USER WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONSYSTEMS: COOPERATION, COMPETITION AND MALICIOUS
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ABSTRACT Efficiency and security are major concerns with increasingly higher importance in modern wireless communications. These two concerns are especially significant for multi- user wireless communications where different users share or compete for resources. 

GENETIC ALGORITHM GUIDED KEY GENERATION IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION (GAKG)
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ABSTRACT In this paper, the proposed technique use high speed stream cipher approach because this approach is useful where less memory and maximum speed is required for encryption process. In this proposed approach Self Acclimatize Genetic Algorithm based 

Gain Enhancement of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using T-Probe Fed for Mobile and Radio Wireless Communication Applications
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ABSTRACT This paper presents an enhancement of gain for square microstrip patch antenna using a T-probe feeding technique. Air is used as a substrate in the proposed design. The thickness of the air-filled substrate, h2= 12mm is selected with dielectric 

ANTENNA DESIGNING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
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ABSTRACT This research paper focus on the latest research happening a crucial research topic of antenna designing for body centrical wireless communication. This concentrates on the design specifications of antennas, antenna frequency bands, a material used in 

Erratum:BER Performance Enhancement for Secure Wireless Communication Systems Based on DCSK-MIMO Techniques under Rayleigh Fading Channel[
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Page 1. Erratum: BER Performance Enhancement for Secure Wireless Communication Systems Based on DCSK-MIMO Techniques under Rayleigh Fading Channel [Radioelectronics and Communications Systems 56 (10), 481 (2013)] 

A Low Multiplicative Complexity of Proposed FFT/IFFTs Design Applied for OFDM-BasedWireless Communication Systems
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FFT/IFFT processor is required in many applications in OFDM-based wireless broadband communication systems. For this reason, it's essential to develop an optimum complexity design FFT/IFFT processor to meet the low power and real time requirements. This paper 

NEURO GENETIC KEY BASED RECURSIVE MODULO-2 SUBSTITUTION USING MUTATED CHARACTER FOR ONLINE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION (
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ABSTRACT In this paper, a neural genetic key based technique for encryption has been proposed through recursive modulo-2 substitution using mutated character code generation for online wireless communication of data/information. Both 

A simulation setup validation framework for modelling architectures and algorithms in designing large scale wireless communication systems
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ABSTRACT –Channel allocation is one of the fundamental issues in designing wireless communications systems due to the fact that it determines how the available bandwidth will be managed over the changeable user demands. The limited channel capacity and the 

ANALYSIS OF ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
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ABSTRACT Nowadays-Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is the transfer of two signals it means that the two coexisting signals are independent of each other in a time interval. OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique with densely spaced sub-carriers 

Research on the Channel of Underground White LED Wireless Communication System?
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ABSTRACT According to the special underground environment that severe dust pervading the air, the mechanism of scattering of white light caused by dust is investigated. In downlink of white LED wireless channel, for several possible effects of reflection and scattering 

Computational Intelligence Based Simulated Annealing Guided Key Generation In Wireless Communication (CISAKG)
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ABSTRACT In this paper, a Computational Intelligence based Simulated Annealing (SA) guided approach is use to construct the key stream. SA is a randomization technique for solving optimization problems. It is a procedure for finding good quality solutions to a large 

Feedback Strategies for Wireless Communication
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Loop-to-loop pulsed electromagnetic field signal transfer in layered configurations-Application to inter-chip wireless communication
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This work has been performed as a MSc. graduation project at Delft University of Technology on the topic 'Loop-to-loop pulsed electromagnetic field signal transfer in layered configurations-application to inter-chip wireless communication'. The goal of this project 

MANAGEMENT OF MIMO WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
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ABSTRACT Next-generation communication evolution towards 4G promises to meet the demands for ubiquitous communication. MIMO technology has become a mandatory requirement to achieve the goals of future wireless communication. This paper describes 

Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol for Minimizing Cluster Size and Inter ClusterCommunication in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network
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ABSTRACT There are many applications like battle field monitoring, habitat monitoring, disaster relief operations, hostile areas, object tracking, remote harsh fields, and contaminated urban regions etc. which need random deployment of sensor nodes. In random deployment the 

Throughput optimal communication strategy for wireless random access channel
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ABSTRACT We consider a wireless time-slotted random access channel where user arrivals are characterized by a Poisson process. Each user comes with a fixed payload, which has to be transmitted in the slot in which it arrives. If the transmission is successful, the user 

Proposal and Evaluation of an Information Sharing Method for All-to-All Communication inWireless Sensor Networks
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ABSTRACT Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of a large number of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communication capabilities. Since it is wasteful and redundant to deploy multiple and independent application-oriented WSNs consisting of 

A SIMPLE AND ORIGINAL DESIGN OF MULTI-BAND MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FORWIRELESS COMMUNICATION
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ABSTRACT Simulated design and analysis of a new simple multi-band microstrip antenna is presented in this paper. An introduced design covers the requisite bandwidth for GSM/DCS/PCS/UMTS cellular phone system and IEEE Wireless Local Area Network ( 

Low-power epidemic communication in wireless ad hoc networks
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Recent advances in electronics have made wireless devices become smaller, lighter, less intrusive, and significantly cheaper: a commodity. This enables the deployment of increasingly larger collections of such devices for a multitude of applications, mainly for 

Implementation of Adaptive Viterbi Decoder for Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT Viterbi algorithm is employed in wireless communication to decode the Convolution codes; those codes are used in every robust digital communication systems. Such decoders are complexdissipate large amount of power. Thus the paper presents 

Power-aware communication for wireless sensor-actuator systems
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ABSTRACT This paper considers the design of power-aware communication protocols for a sensor transmitting plant state measurements over a wireless Markov fading channel to a receiver/controller. Communication requires power consumption at transmission adapted 

Poweraware communication for wireless sensor-actuator systems: Extended version
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ABSTRACT This paper considers the design of power-aware communication protocols for a sensor transmitting plant state measurements over a wireless Markov fading channel to a receiver/controller. Communication requires power consumption at transmission adapted 

Enabling Multihop Communication in Spontaneous Wireless Networks
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Since the end of the 20th century, wireless networking is experiencing explosive growth, driven by the popularity of wireless telephony on one hand, and by the development of wireless computer networks on the other hand. Both trends are currently merging into a 

Weighted Energy Efficient Clustering Hierarchy for Multi-hop Communication in WirelessSensor Networks
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ABSTRACT Wireless Sensor Networks are constrained in terms of energy resources and therefore require efficient energy management during collection, processing, aggregation, communication and eventual utilization of sensor's data in several customized 

Miniaturization of Dual-Band PIFA for Wireless LAN Communication
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In this letter, a simple method for reducing the size of a dualband planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) is described. This method is based on a coupling capacitor connected in parallel to the PIFA feed conductor. The proposed antenna occupies a small ground clearance of 10 

Watermarking-Based Blind QoS Assessment for Wireless Image Communication
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ABSTRACT This paper presents a novel scheme to blindly estimate the quality of an image communication link by means of an unconventional use of digital watermarking. The watermarking technique is usually employed for digital media copyright protection and 

A Switching Subnet Algorithm Based on Industrial Wireless Network Communication Data Change
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ABSTRACT When the communication data in industrial wireless network changes, the original network topology is not suitable for communication data. It is needed that switching subnet to change the original network topology. The goal of the study is to find a switch combination 

Concatenated RS-Convolutional Codes for Cooperative Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT In the last few years, several works have investigated the performance of cooperative wireless systems with various types of channel codes such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC), Turbo, CRC, convolutional and recently Reed Solomon (RS) codes. 

A General Robust Key Management Scheme for Wireless Multihop Communication Network
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ABSTRACT Wireless multihop communication network is an important part of modern communication network, because of its flexible forms of networking, not relying on any fixed infrastructure to achieve network connectivity and data transfer, but through the mobile 

Multi-Antenna Wireless Powered Communication with Energy Beamforming
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ABSTRACT The newly emerging wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs) have recently drawn significant attention, where radio signals are used to power wireless terminals for information transmission. In this paper, we study a WPCN where one multi- 

Wireless Dimmer Control Using Power Line Communication
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The design of a Wireless Dimmer Control Using Power Line Communication was undertaken because of a need for users to efficiently manage the consumption of power in their homes. Costs will be kept to a minimum by the use of existing home wiring.

Wireless Communication Electronics by Example
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A Survey on Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
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ABSTRACT Improvements in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology have resulted in a large number of applications. WSNs have been mainly used for monitoring applications, but they are also applicable to target tracking, health care, and monitoring with multimedia 

aDTN-Undetectable Communication in Wireless Delay-tolerant Networks
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This document describes a best-effort delay-tolerant communication system that protects the privacy of users in wireless ad-hoc networks by making their communication undetectable. Delay-tolerant communication takes place when end-to-end connections between any two 

A New Modified MPPM for High-Speed Wireless Optical Communication Systems
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Previous work proposed combining multipulse pulse position modulation (MPPM) with pulse amplitude modulation to form multipulse amplitude and position modulation (MPAPM), which is a hybrid modulation that results in an improvement in bandwidth efficiency but a 

0.2 THz Wireless Communication using plasma-wave transistor detector
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ABSTRACT Transistors are possible THz detectors using rectification in the channel that can be applied for detection of high data-rate wireless communications, based on THz-frequency carrier. For the first time, we present the transmission of pseudorandom bit sequence at 

DISTRIBUTED COOPERATIVE CLUSTER BASED COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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ABSTRACT Energy constraint in wireless sensor networks has received an increasing research interest in recent years. Radio irregularity, channel fading and interference results in larger energy consumption and latency for packet transmission over wireless channel. 

22 Gbps wireless communication system at 0.4 THz
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I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND HZ communications are pushing the actual wireless data rates capabilities for future high data-rate communications systems, and data rates up to 100 Gbps are expected in the future . Several demonstrations have already been 

Optimum Downtilt Gain Correction and Performance Optimization of Wireless Communication Network in Built-up Terrains
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ABSTRACT Utilizing the correct elevation angle on each cell in a cellular network is important to ensure that the signal level is maximized within the dominance area of a cell and minimized everywhere else. Consequently, by deploying the most appropriate tilt 

WIRELESS INTER-CRANE COMMUNICATION METHOD FOR MULTI-CRANE SCHEDULING IN MARITIME CONTAINER TERMINALS
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One of the main problems in the maritime container terminals is inefficient use of technical (quay cranes, yard cranes, mobile cranes) and human resources. All this affects negatively the scheduling of transportation and storage processes in the terminals. A new method 

Enhancement of Microstrip Circular Patch Antenna Performances Using DGS Technique forWireless Communication Application
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ABSTRACT In this paper, a design of a microstrip circular patch antenna with Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is presented for a wireless communication application. The proposed antenna has been simulated at 2.45 GHz frequency by using a Computer 

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RELAY DIVERSITY IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
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ABSTRACT Wireless channels are used in area of communication not only for voice transmission, but it is also used for various other kinds of applications, such as video transmission, large data transfer and other services. But due to higher quality of service ( 

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS
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To understand the various aspects of mobile networks and to study about the Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Video Broadcasting. To understand about the working of Wireless ATM Networks and Quality of Service. To know about the Wireless Telephony Application and 

Applications of Random Matrix Theory in Wireless Underwater Communication or Why Signal Processing and Wireless Communication Need Random Matrix
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ABSTRACT Recently, there has been an enormous amount of interest in the use of random matrix theory (RMT) methods in signal processing. The application of random matrix methods to the analysis of techniques that have been used and studied for years in signal 

Optimal Wireless Communication Method for Communication Inside the Human Body
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ABSTRACT For various applications, for example medical implants, wireless communication inside the human body is required, which introduces unique requirements. Previous research has been done concerning several of those requirements, but there is no 

Cooperative Communication: New Trend in Wireless Communication
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ABSTRACT Transmit diversity generally requires more than one antenna at the transmitter. However, many wireless devices are limited by size or hardware complexity to one antenna. Recently, a new class of methods called cooperative communication has been proposed 

Wireless Communication By An Autonomous Self-Powered Cyborg Insect
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Figure 2. Applied potential vs. current and power density vs. current of 2 different biofuel cells implanted in A) a cockroach and B) a moth, geometric area of anode 0.0078 cm2 and cathode 0.031 cm2. The biofuel cell was tested in vitro before implantation in a 30mM 

Evaluation of Communication Overhead and Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Network using Different Clustering Techniques
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Wireless sensor networks are highly distributed networks of small, lightweight nodes and deployed in large numbers to monitor the environment parameters or system by the measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, or relative humidity. 


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