# COMPUTER SOFTWARE ALGORITHM -TECHNOLOGY-RESEARCH PAPER

procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conductiong a sequence of specified actions. or flow chart , programmers do this before writing real programs.

**An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series**

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An efficient method for the calculation of the interactions of a 2m factorial experiment was introduced by Yates and is widely known by his name. The generalization to 3m was given Good generalized these methods and gave elegant algorithms for which

**The condensation algorithm conditional density propagation and applications to visual tracking**

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The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is a challenging one. Trackers based on Kalman filters are of limited power; because they are based on Gaussian densities which are unimodal they cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypotheses. Extensions to the Kalman

**A density-based algorithm for discovering clusters in large spatial databases with noise.**

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Abstract Clustering algorithms are attractive for the task of class identification in spatial databases. However, the application to large spatial databases rises the following requirements for clustering algorithms: minimal requirements of domain knowledge to

**On spectral clustering: Analysis and an algorithm**

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Despite many empirical successes of spectral clustering methods algorithms that cluster points using eigenvectors of matrices derived from the data-there are several unresolved issues. First, there are a wide variety of algorithms that use the eigenvectors in slightly

**Experiments with a new boosting algorithm**

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Abstract In an earlier paper , we introduced a new boosting algorithm called AdaBoost which, theoretically, can be used to significantly reduce the error of any learning algorithm that consistently generates classifiers whose performance is a little better than random

**SPEA2: Improving the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm**

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Abstract The Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm SPEA is a relatively recent technique for finding or approximating the Pareto-optimal set for multiobjective optimization problems. In different studies

**Automated docking using a Lamarckian genetic algorithm and an empirical binding free energy function**

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ABSTRACT: A novel and robust automated docking method that predicts the bound conformations of flexible ligands to macromolecular targets has been developed and tested, in combination with a new scoring function that estimates the free energy change upon

**The Levenberg Marquardt algorithm : implementation and theory**

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proposed a very elegant algorithm for the numerical solution of (1.1). However, most implementations are either not robust, or do not have a solid theoretical justification. In this work we discuss a robust

**Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations**

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Abstract-In this paper, a fast and flexible algorithm for computing watersheds in digital grayscale images is introduced. A review of watersheds and related notion is first presented, and the major methods to determine watersheds are discussed. The present algorithm is

**A new learning algorithm for blind signal separation**

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Abstract A new on-line learning algorithm which minimizes a statistical dependency among outputs is derived for blind separation of mixed signals. The dependency is measured by the average mutual information (MI) of the outputs. The source signals and the mixing matrix are

**LSQR: An algorithm for sparse linear equations and sparse least squares**

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Reliable stopping criteria are derived, along with estimates of standard errors for x and the condition number of A. These are used in the FORTRAN implementation of the method, subroutine LSQR. Numerical tests are described comparing I~ QR with several other The purpose of the algorithm is to calculate the least value of a real function where x is a vector of n real variables, subject to the constraints 0, i= 1, 2,, m: ci 0, i= m+ 1, m+ 2,(1.1) on the value We suppose that the objective and constraint functions are differentiable and

**Pyramidal implementation of the affine lucas kanade feature tracker description of the algorithm**

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1 Problem Statement Let and be two 2D grayscaled images. The two quantities (x)= ( ) and (x)= ( ) are then the grayscale values of the two images at the location x=[ ] , where and are the two pixel coordinates of a generic image point x. The image

**Fast approximate nearest neighbors with automatic algorithm configuration.**

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Abstract: For many computer vision problems, the most time consuming component consists of nearest neighbor matching in high-dimensional spaces. There are no known exact algorithms for solving these high-dimensional problems that are faster than linear search.

**Genetic algorithm approaches for the phylogenetic analysis of large biological sequence datasets under the maximum likelihood criterion**

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GARLI (Genetic Algorithm for Rapid Likelihood Inference) is a heuristic search algorithm for performing phylogenetic inference under the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion. The algorithm was developed with the goals of increasing both the speed of ML inference and

**A gentle tutorial of the EM algorithm and its application to parameter estimation for Gaussian mixture and hidden Markov models**

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Abstract We describe the maximum-likelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm can be used for its solution. We first describe the abstract form of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the

**Outline of an algorithm for integer solutions to linear programs**

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BY RALPH E. GOMORY* Communicated by AW Tucker, May 3, 1958 The problem of obtaining the best integer solution to a linear program comes up in several contexts. The connection with combinatorial problems is given by Dantzig in [l], the connection with

**The GENITOR Algorithm and Selection Pressure: Why Rank-Based Allocation of Reproductive Trials is Best.**

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Abstract This paper reports work done over the past three years using rank-based allocation of reproductive trials. New evidence and arguments are presented which suggest that allocating reproductive trials according to rank is superior to tness proportionate

**Dijkstras algorithm**

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Dijkstras Algorithm Sources: S. Skiena. The Algorithm Design Manual. S. Sedgewick. Algorithms in C++ (3rd Edition) Page 2. 2 Problem Two algorithms, depending on what information we want Recall: All pairs shortest path: Floyds algorithm Single source

**MRI-PET registration with automated algorithm**

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Objective: We have previously reported an automated method for withinmodality (eg, PET-te- PET) image alignment. We now describe modifications to this method that allow for cross- modality registration of MRI and PET brain images obtained from a single subject. Methods:

**A genetic algorithm for function optimization: a Matlab implementation**

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A genetic algorithm implemented in Matlab is presented. Matlab is used for the following reasons: it provides many built in auxiliary functions useful for function optimization it is completely portable and it is efficient for numerical computations. The genetic algorithm

**The clonal selection algorithm with engineering applications**

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Abstract The clonal selection algorithm is used by the natural immune system to define the basic features of an immune response to an antigenic stimulus. It establishes the idea that only those cells that recognize the antigens are selected to proliferate. The selected cells are

**A PIV algorithm for estimating time-averaged velocity fields**

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There has been a significant amount of work over the past 15 years developing theory for particle image velocimetry, including Adrian and Yao 1, Adrian 2, 3, Keane and Adrian 4, 5, and Westerweel 6. A large fraction of this effort has been focused on determining optimal

**Development of a stemming algorithm**

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A stemming algorithm a procedure to reduce all words with the same stem to a common form, is useful in many areas of computational linguistics and information-retrieval work. While the form of the algorithm varies with its application, certain linguistic problems are

**A filtering algorithm for constraints of difference in CSPs**

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A Filtering Algorithm for Constraints of Difference in CSPs

**A Multi-Level Algorithm For Partitioning Graphs.**

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Abstract. The graph partitioning problem is that of dividing the vertices of a graph into sets of speci ed sizes such that few edges cross between sets. This NP complete problem arises in many important scienti c and engineering problems. Prominent examples include the We design a short program which will run on most machines and encypher safely. It uses a large number of iterations rather than a complicated program. It is hoped that it can easily be translated into most languages in a compatible way. The first program is given below. It uses little set up

**Analysis and simulation of a fair queueing algorithm**

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SUMMARY We discuss gateway queueing algorithms and their role in controlling congestion in datagram networks. A fair queueing algorithm based on an earlier suggestion by Nagle, is proposed. Analysis and simulations are used to compare this algorithm to other

**A fast voxel traversal algorithm for ray tracing**

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ABSTRACT A fast and simple voxel traversal algorithm through a 3D space partition is introduced. Going from one voxel to its neighbour requires only two floating point comparisons and one floating point addition. Also, multiple ray intersections with objects that

**PatchMatch: A randomized correspondence algorithm for structural image editing**

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Abstract This paper presents interactive image editing tools using a new randomized algorithm for quickly finding approximate nearestneighbor matches between image patches. Previous research in graphics and vision has leveraged such nearest-neighbor searches to

**Closet: An efficient algorithm for mining frequent closed itemsets.**

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Abstract Association mining may often derive an undesirably large set of frequent itemsets and association rules. Recent studies have proposed an interesting alternative: mining frequent closed itemsets and their corresponding rules, which has the same power as

**The EM algorithm for mixtures of factor analyzers**

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Abstract Factor analysis, a statistical method for modeling the covariance structure of high dimensional data using a small number of latent variables, can be extended by allowing different local factor models in different regions of the input space. This results in a model

**The focussed D^* algorithm for real-time replanning**

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Abstract Finding the lowest-cost path through a graph is central to many problems, including route planning for a mobile robot. If arc costs change during the traverse, then the remainder of the path may need to be replanned. This is the case for a sensor-equipped mobile robot

**Effectiveness of managing suspected pulmonary embolism using an algorithm combining clinical probability, D-dimer testing, and computed tomography**

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Writing Group for the Christopher Study Investigators* THE MAIN CHALLENGE IN THE DI- agnostic workup of patients with clinically suspected pul- monary embolism is to accu- rately and rapidly distinguish the ap- proximately 25% of patients who have the disease and require anticoagulant

**Point-based value iteration: An anytime algorithm for POMDPs**

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(PBVI) algorithm for POMDP planning. PBVI approximates an exact value iteration solution by selecting a small set of representative belief points and then tracking the value and its derivative for those points only. By using stochastic trajectories to choose belief points, and

**A brief description of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm implemented by levmar**

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Abstract The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is an iterative technique that locates the minimum of a function that is expressed as the sum of squares of nonlinear functions. It has become a standard technique for nonlinear least-squares problems and can be thought of

**Power control in ad-hoc networks: Theory, architecture, algorithm and implementation of the COMPOW protocol**

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ABSTRACT We present a new protocol for power control in ad hoc networks. We describe the issues in conceptualizing the power control problem, and provide an architecturally simple as well as theoretically well founded solution. The solution is shown to

**A robust algorithm for pitch tracking (RAPT)**

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The need for reliable automatic estimates of the voice fundamental frequency has engaged as many creative minds as any topic in speech analysis. Reports on the algo rithms and systems resulting from these efforts comprise a rich literature spanning several generations.

**A fast algorithm for multi-pattern searching**

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SUMMARY A new algorithm to search for multiple patterns at the same time is presented. The algorithm is faster than previous algorithms and can support a very large number tens of thousands of patterns. Several applications of the multi-pattern matching problem are

**A fast algorithm for multilevel thresholding**

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Otsu reference proposed a criterion for maximizing the between-class variance of pixel intensity to perform picture thresholding. However, Otsus method for image segmentation is very time-consuming because of the inefficient formulation of the between-class variance. In

**Music-inspired harmony search algorithm : theory and applications**

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Calculus has been used in solving many scientific and engineering problems. For optimization problems, however, the differential calculus technique sometimes has a drawback when the objective function is step-wise, discontinuous, or multi-modal, or when

**A fast non-negativity-constrained least squares algorithm**

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SUMMARY In this paper a modification of the standard algorithm for non-negativity- constrained linear least squares regression is proposed. The algorithm is specifically designed for use in multiway decomposition methods such as PARAFAC and N-mode

**An Industrial Strength Audio Search Algorithm .**

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We have developed and commercially deployed a flexible audio search engine. The algorithm is noise and distortion resistant, computationally efficient, and massively scalable, capable of quickly identifying a short segment of music captured through a cellphone

**The alternating decision tree learning algorithm**

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Abstract The application of boosting procedures to decision tree algorithms has been shown to produce very accurate classifiers. These classifiers are in the form of a majority vote over a number of decision trees. Unfortunately, these classifiers are often large, complex and

**Ridge regression learning algorithm in dual variables**

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Abstract In this paper we study a dual version of the Ridge Regression procedure. It allows us to perform non-linear regression by constructing a linear regression function in a high dimensional feature space. The feature space representation can result in a large increase

**X3: A low overhead high performance buffer management replacement algorithm**

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Abstract In a path-breaking paper last year Pat and Betty ONeil and Gerhard Weikum pro posed a self-tuning improvement to the Least Recently Used (LRU) buffer management algorithm [l5]. Their improvement is called LRU/k and advocates giving priority to buffer

**An Investigation of some Properties of an Ant Algorithm .**

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Abstract We have used the metaphor of ant colonies to define the Ant system, a class of distributed algorithms for combinatorial optimization. To test the Ant system we used the travelling salesman problem. In this paper we analyze some properties of Ant-cycle, the up

**Conventional genetic algorithm for job shop problems.**

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Abstract The job shop problem (JSP) is NP-hard, much harder than the traveling salesman problem. This paper shows how a conventional Genetic Algorithm (GA) can efficiently solve the JSP. We introduce unique ideas in representation, evaluation, and survival. A solution is

**An evolutionary algorithm for multi objective optimization: The strength pareto approach**

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Abstract Evolutionary algorithms (EA) have proved to be well suited for optimization problems with multiple objectives. Due to their inherent parallelism they are able to capture a number of solutions concurrently in a single run. In this report, we propose a new In many information retrieval and text-editing applications it is necessary to be able to locate quickly some or all occurrences of user-specified words or phrases in one or several arbitrary text strings. Specifically, we consider retrieval from unformatted data, for example, a

**Femto second pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback**

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Abstract. We report on computer controlled compression of femtosecond laser pulses using a programmable liquid crystal spatial light modulator which is feedback-controlled by an evolutionary algorithm . This algorithm generates the optimal laser field on the basis of

**Training multilayer perceptrons with the extended Kalman algorithm**

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ABSTRACT A large fraction of recent work in artificial neural nets uses multilayer perceptrons trained with the back-propagation algorithm described This algorithm converges slowly for large or complex problems such as speech recognition,

**An accelerated proximal gradient algorithm for nuclear norm regularized linear least squares problems**

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Abstract The affine rank minimization problem, which consists of finding a matrix of minimum rank subject to linear equality constraints, has been proposed in many areas of engineering and science. A specific rank minimization problem is the matrix completion problem, in ALGORITHM FOR DETERMINING THE TYPE OF A SINGULAR FIBER IN AN ELLIPTIC PENCIL. Summary Generalised Weierstrass form Change of coordinates Minimal Weierstrass equation over

**Multiobjective optimization using the niched pareto genetic algorithm**

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Abstract Many, if not most, optimization problems have multiple objectives. Historically, multiple objectives (ie, attributes or criteria) have been combined ad hoc to form a scalar objective function, usually through a linear combination (weighted sum) of the multiple

**GAlib: A C++ library of genetic algorithm components**

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GAlib is a C++ library of genetic algorithm objects. The library includes tools for using genetic algorithms to do optimization in any C++ program using any representation and any genetic operators. This documentation includes an extensive overview of how to implement

**The parti-game algorithm for variable resolution reinforcement learning in multidimensional state-spaces**

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Abstract Parti-game is a new algorithm for learning from delayed rewards in high dimensional real-valued state-spaces. In high dimensions it is essential that learning does not explore or plan over state space uniformly. Part i-game maintains a decision-tree

**An on-line algorithm for real-time accompaniment**

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Abstract Real-time accompaniment solves most of the synchronization problems inherent in taped accompaniment; however, this new approach requires the computer to have the ability to follow the soloist. Three subproblems arise: detecting and processing input from the live

**A fast clustering algorithm to cluster very large categorical data sets in data mining.**

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Abstract Partitioning a large set of objects into homogeneous clusters is a fundamental operation in data mining. The k-means algorithm is best suited for implementing this operation because of its efficiency in clustering large data sets. However, working only on